This book aims at both academics and professionals in the field of forest-people interfaces. It takes the reader on a journey through four major themes that have emerged since the initiation of 'social forestry' in the 1970s: non-timber forest products and agroforestry; community-based natural resource management; biocultural diversity; and forest governance. In so doing, the books offers a comprehensive and current review on social issues related to forests that other, more specialized publications, lack. It is also theory-rich, offering both mainstream and critical perspectives, and presents up-to-date empirical materials. Reviewing these four major research themes, the main conclusion of the book is that naïve optimism associated with forest-people interfaces should be tempered. The chapters show that economic development, political empowerment and environmental aims are not easily integrated. Hence local landscapes and communities are not as 'makeable' as is often assumed. Events that take place on other scales might intervene; local communities might not implement policies locally; and governance practices might empower governments more than communities. This all shows that we should go beyond community-based ideas and ideals, and look at practices on the ground.