Ajay Kumar

  • This important text/reference presents the first dedicated review of techniques for contactless 3D fingerprint identification, including novel and previously unpublished research. The text provides a systematic introduction to 3D fingerprint identification, covering the latest advancements in contactless 2D and 3D sensing technologies, and detailed discussions on each key aspect in the development of an effective 3D fingerprint identification system.Topics and features: introduces the key concepts and trends in the acquisition and identification of fingerprint images, and a range of 3D fingerprint imaging techniques; proposes a low-cost method for online 3D fingerprint image acquisition, and an efficient 3D fingerprint imaging approach using coloured photometric stereo; describes pre-processing operations on point cloud 3D fingerprint data, and explains the specialized operations for reconstructing 3D fingerprints from live finger scans; examines the representation of minutiae in 3D space, providing details on recovering these features from point cloud data, and on matching such 3D minutiae templates; reviews various 3D fingerprint matching methods, including binary surface code-based approaches and a tetrahedron-based matching approach; discusses the uniqueness of 3D fingerprints, evaluating the benefits of employing 3D fingerprint identification over conventional 2D fingerprint techniques.This unique work is a must-read for all researchers seeking to make further advances in this area, towards the exciting opportunities afforded by contactless 3D fingerprint identification for improving the hygiene, user convenience, and matching accuracy of fingerprint biometric technologies.

  • Since the process of liberalization and opening of markets in the 1990s, the emerging markets have created a thriving culture of entrepreneurship, creativity and global collaboration. Along with these opportunities, however, there are challenges in doing business with emerging markets. 
    This book underlines the challenges that come with managing business relationships in diverse emerging countries such as India. It also provides useful implications and conclusions for successful and profitable business ventures in emerging economies.

  • The book is a comprehensive deep-dive into the developments and advancements of emerging carbon-based nanocomposites for wastewater applications. Science and technology development are tackling one of the world's most pressing concerns-water contamination and effective treatment. Carbon-based nanocomposites have emerged as one of the leading materials in this treatment push because of their properties and high ability for the catalytic degradation of contaminants from aqueous segments. The 10 chapters in this timely book cover the follows areas: Carbon-based nanocomposites for remediation of heavy metals and organic pollutants from wastewater Functional green carbon nanocomposites for heavy-metal treatment in water Green nanocomposites and applications in environmentally-friendly carbon nanomaterials Carbon-based nanocomposites as heterogeneous catalysts for organic reactions in environment-friendly solvents Carbon-based polymer nanocomposite applications Biochar-based adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous systems Carbon nanomaterial-based green nanocomposites The removal of trihalomethanes from water using nanofiltration membranes Nanocomposite materials as electrode materials in microbial fuel cells for the removal of water pollutants Plasmonic smart nanosensors for the determination of environmental pollutants.

  • This book reviews the work in the field of nanoadsorbents derived from natural polymers, with a special emphasis on materials finding application in water remediation. It includes natural materials both with an organic or an inorganic skeleton, from which the nanomaterials can be made. Those nanomaterials can therefore be used to reinforce other matrices and in their pristine form have an extraordinary adsorption efficiency. Being of natural or biological origin, the materials described in this book distinguish themselves as eco-friendly and non-toxic. The book describes how these benefits of the described materials can be combined and exploited. It will thus appeal to chemists, nanotechnologists, environmental engineers and generally all scientist working in the field of water pollution and remediation as an inspiration for the innovation toward new technologies. 

  • This timely text/reference presents a broad overview of advanced deep learning architectures for learning effective feature representation for perceptual and biometrics-related tasks. The text offers a showcase of cutting-edge research on the use of convolutional neural networks (CNN) in face, iris, fingerprint, and vascular biometric systems, in addition to surveillance systems that use soft biometrics. Issues of biometrics security are also examined.Topics and features: addresses the application of deep learning to enhance the performance of biometrics identification across a wide range of different biometrics modalities; revisits  deep learning for face biometrics, offering insights from neuroimaging, and provides comparison with popular CNN-based architectures for face recognition; examines deep learning for state-of-the-art latent fingerprint and finger-vein recognition, as well as iris recognition; discusses deep learning for soft biometrics, including approaches for gesture-based identification, gender classification, and tattoo recognition; investigates deep learning for biometrics security, covering biometrics template protection methods, and liveness detection to protect against fake biometrics samples; presents contributions from a global selection of pre-eminent experts in the field representing academia, industry and government laboratories.Providing both an accessible introduction to the practical applications of deep learning in biometrics, and a comprehensive coverage of the entire spectrum of biometric modalities, this authoritative volume will be of great interest to all researchers, practitioners and students involved in related areas of computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning.

  • This book demonstrates the changing dynamics of India's engagement with Africa, focusing on trade, investment, official development assistance, capacity building activities and the diaspora. It also examines its impact at the economic, political and societal levels with respect to governance, democratic structures, education and health. India has competitive edge of historical goodwill and it is one of the most important countries engaging Africa in the 21st Century. For Africa, India has emerged from an aid recipient country to a major aid provider but on a basis of partnership model. The book provides a contemporary analysis and assessment of Indo-Africa relations, bringing together contributions from the Global South and from the North that explore whether the relationship is truly `mutually beneficial'.

  • This book offers a first-of-its-kind, standalone review of coalbed methane (CBM) in India, covering all the major technical and policy aspects. As an authoritative text on CBM in India, it addresses the essential geological, engineering and policy issues. The Coalbed Methane industry is a rapidly developing sector in Indian energy supply. The book presents the characteristics of coal beds in India's Damodar and Son river valleys, which influence the commercial viability of CBM in the regions, as well as a study of the gas contents of the country's major coalfields. The book begins with a brief review of methane emissions from Indian coal mines and the current coalbed methane situation in the country. Its unique features include a coalfield-by-coalfield technical assessment of CBM throughout India. Policy matters are addressed, including the National Exploration Licencing Policy (NELP) of the Indian Government Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, which is vital to an overall understanding of CBM development in the country. The scope and depth of its book's coverage will benefit students, practising engineers, researchers and policy-makers.

  • This book provides information on proper underground mine ventilation in order to detail its importance in maintaining safe, productive, healthy and effective underground environments at all times for employees. The text covers correct design, implementation and maintenance of mine ventilation through suitable fan installation, and keeps in mind the economic requirements of undertaking safe procedures and implementations to ensure that ventilation is optimal. 
    Through three main goals, the book addresses the need for proper fan ventilation in the potentially hazardous conditions of an underground mine. The first goal is to summarize and update the technical information on the strategic importance of selecting suitable techno-commercial main mechanical ventilators for a coal mine. The second goal is to provide a user friendly computer program to help any practicing engineers, mine operators, regulators and researchers in choosing the main mechanical ventilators. Factors in this selection process include environmental requirements, regulatory conditions, occupational health related issues, and cost. The third goal is to provide applications for computer programs meant to determine proper selection and implementation of the main mechanical ventilators. The text is geared towards teachers, researchers, policy makers, environmental organizations and mine operators who wish to teach about or implement the best possible ventilation systems for the health and safety of mine workers.

  • Details the water research applications of nanotechnology in various areas including environmental science, remediation, membranes, nanomaterials, and water treatment At the nano size, materials often take on unique and sometimes unexpected properties that result in them being `tuned' to build faster, lighter, stronger, and more efficient devices and systems, as well as creating new classes of materials. In water research, nanotechnology is applied to develop more cost-effective and high-performance water treatment systems, as well as to provide instant and continuous ways to monitor water quality. This volume presents an array of cutting-edge nanotechnology research in water applications including treatment, remediation, sensing, and pollution prevention. Nanotechnology applications for waste water research have significant impact in maintaining the long-term quality, availability, and viability of water. Regardless of the origin, such as municipal or industrial waste water, its remediation utilizing nanotechnology can not only be recycled and desalinized, but it can simultaneously detect biological and chemical contamination. Application of Nanotechnology in Water Research describes a broad area of nanotechnology and water research where membrane processes (nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and nanoreactive membranes) are considered key components of advanced water purification and desalination technologies that remove, reduce, or neutralize water contaminants that threaten human health and/or ecosystem productivity and integrity. Various nanoparticles and nanomaterials that could be used in water remediation (zeolites, carbon nanotubes, self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports, biopolymers, single-enzyme nanoparticles, zero-valent iron nanoparticles, bimetallic iron nanoparticles, and nanoscale semiconductor photocatalysts) are discussed. The book also covers water-borne infectious diseases as well as water-borne pathogens, microbes, and toxicity approach.

  • Smart materials are used to develop more cost-effective and high-performance water treatment systems as well as instant and continuous ways to monitor water quality. Smart materials in water research have been extensively utilized for the treatment, remediation, and pollution prevention. Smart materials can maintain the long term water quality, availability and viability of water resource. Thus, water via smart materials can be reused, recycled, desalinized and also it can detect the biological and chemical contamination whether the source is from municipal, industrial or man-made waste. The 15 state-of-the-art review chapters contained in this book cover the recent advancements in the area of waste water, as well as the prospects about the future research and development of smart materials for the waste water applications in the municipal, industrial and manmade waste areas. Treatment techniques (nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, adsorption and nano-reactive membranes) are also covered in-depth.  The chapters are divided into three groups: The first section includes the various carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, mixed oxides) with a focus on use of carbon at nanoscale applied for waste water research. The second section focuses on synthetic nanomaterials for pollutants removal. The third section highlights the bio-polymeric nanomaterials where the authors have used the natural polymers matrices in a composite and nanocomposite material for waste treatment. The large number of researchers working in the area will benefit from the fundamental concepts, advanced approaches and application of the various smart materials towards waste water treatment that are described in the book. It will also provide a platform for the researchers and graduate students to carry out advanced research and understand the building blocks.

  • This book describes a broad area of nanomedicine which involves mainly applications, diseases, and diagnostics. The comprehensive coverage provides researchers, academics, and health specialists with a great tool, that includes techniques applicable to various uses.

  • Plant diseases play an important role on our daily lives. Most of plant diseases are visible and are caused by biotic and/or abiotic factors. Symptoms are usually the results of a morphological change, alteration or damage to plant tissue and/or cells due to an interference of the plant's metabolism. All basic structures of vascular plants are subject to attack by pathogens. The failure in accurate disease diagnosis and management may lead to huge losses in plant production and related commodities, which causes nutritional food scarcity. Typically, the appearance of a biotic symptom will indicate the relatively late stage of an infection and/or colonization of a pathogen. Expert detection, accurate diagnosis, and timely management play a significant role in keeping plants free from pathogens. In this book expert scholars share their research knowledge and key literature which are vital toward the diagnosis of plant diseases across the globe, addressing traditional plant pathology techniques, as well as advanced molecular diagnostic approach.

  • In this book, we have summarized recent progresses due to novel nanomaterials for sustainable water resources. Book provides a summary of the state of the art knowledge to scientists, engineers and policy makers, about recent developments due to nanotechnology for sustainable water resources arena. The advances in sustainable water resources technologies in the context of modern society's interests will be considered preferably which allow to identify grand challenges and directions for future research. The book contributors have been selected from all over the world and the essential functions of the nanotechnologies have presented rather than their anticipated applications. Moreover, up to date knowledge on economy, toxicity and regulation related to nanotechnology are presented in detail. In the end, role of nanotechnology for green and sustainable future has also been briefly debated.

  • This book summarizes recent research and development in the field of nanostructured ceramics and their composites. It presents selected examples of ceramic materials with special electronic, catalytic and optical properties and exceptional mechanical characteristics. A special focus is on sol-gel based and organic-inorganic hybrid nanoceramic materials. The book highlights examples for preparation techniques including scale-up, properties of smart ceramic composites, and applications including e.g. waste water treatment, heavy metal removal, sensors, electronic devices and fuel cells. Recent challenges are addressed and potential solutions are suggested for these. This book hence addresses chemists, materials scientists, and engineers, working with nanoceramic materials and on their applications.

  • This volume contains selected papers presented during the International Conference on Environmental Geotechnology, Recycled Waste Material and Sustainable Engineering (EGRWSE-2018). The multidisciplinary articles included in this volume cover the fields of  environmental management, site characterization, environmental risk assessment, waste disposal, soil and groundwater remediation, habitat protection, and environmental rehabilitation. This volume will be of interest to professionals and researchers working in diverse fields ranging from geotechnical engineering, environmental engineering, hydrogeology, earth science, geochemistry, water engineering, and ecology, among others.

  • This volume contains selected papers presented during the International Conference on Environmental Geotechnology, Recycled Waste Material and Sustainable Engineering (EGRWSE-2018). The papers focus on finding innovative ways of recycling and reusing waste materials, reducing demand for natural resources and processing industrial and chemical wastes such that disposal reduces their environmental burden.  This volume will be of interest to researchers, policy makers and practitioners working in the field of waste management. 

  • This volume contains selected papers presented during the International Conference on Environmental Geotechnology, Recycled Waste Material and Sustainable Engineering (EGRWSE-2018). The multidisciplinary articles in this volume discuss environment-friendly technologies and the application of 'smart' solutions and initiatives to improve infrastructure and services, with a strong emphasis on sustainability and conservation of resources. This volume will be of interest to engineers, professionals, and researchers working on improving urban infrastructure and strengthen civic amenities in a sustainable manner. 

  • This book discusses various open issues in software engineering, such as the efficiency of automated testing techniques, predictions for cost estimation, data processing, and automatic code generation. Many traditional techniques are available for addressing these problems. But, with the rapid changes in software development, they often prove to be outdated or incapable of handling the software's complexity. Hence, many previously used methods are proving insufficient to solve the problems now arising in software development.

    The book highlights a number of unique problems and effective solutions that reflect the state-of-the-art in software engineering. Deep learning is the latest computing technique, and is now gaining popularity in various fields of software engineering. This book explores new trends and experiments that have yielded promising solutions to current challenges in software engineering. As such, it offers a valuable reference guide for a broad audience including systems analysts, software engineers, researchers, graduate students and professors engaged in teaching software engineering.

  • This book reviews the HL-LHC experiments and the fourth-generation photon science experiments, discussing the latest radiation hardening techniques, optimization of device & process parameters using TCAD  simulation tools, and the experimental characterization required to develop rad-hard Si detectors for x-ray induced surface damage and bulk damage by hadronic irradiation.Consisting of eleven chapters, it introduces various types of strip and pixel detector designs for the current upgrade, radiation, and dynamic range requirement of the experiments, and presents an overview of radiation detectors, especially Si detectors. It also describes the design of pixel detectors, experiments and characterization of Si detectors.
    The book is intended for researchers and master's level students with an understanding of radiation detector physics. It provides a concept that uses TCAD simulation to optimize the electrical performance of the devices used in the harsh radiation environment of the colliders and at XFEL.

  • Global population is mounting at an alarming stride to surpass 9.3 billion by 2050, whereas simultaneously the agricultural productivity is gravely affected by climate changes resulting in increased biotic and abiotic stresses. The genus Brassica belongs to the mustard family whose members are known as cruciferous vegetables, cabbages or mustard plants. Rapeseed-mustard is world's third most important source of edible oil after soybean and oil palm. It has worldwide acceptance owing to its rare combination of health promoting factors. It has very low levels of saturated fatty acids which make it the healthiest edible oil that is commonly available. Apart from this, it is rich in antioxidants by virtue of tocopherols and phytosterols presence in the oil. The high omega 3 content reduces the risk of atherosclerosis/heart attack. Conventional breeding methods have met with limited success in Brassica because yield and stress resilience are polygenic traits and are greatly influenced by environment. Therefore, it is imperative to accelerate the efforts to unravel the biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying yield, quality and tolerance towards biotic and abiotic stresses in Brassica. To exploit its fullest potential, systematic efforts are needed to unlock the genetic information for new germplasms that tolerate initial and terminal state heat coupled with moisture stress. For instance, wild relatives may be exploited in developing introgressed and resynthesized lines with desirable attributes. Exploitation of heterosis is another important area which can be achieved by introducing transgenics to raise stable CMS lines. Doubled haploid breeding and marker assisted selection should be employed along with conventional breeding. Breeding programmes aim at enhancing resource use efficiency, especially nutrient and water as well as adoption to aberrant environmental changes should also be considered. Biotechnological interventions are essential for altering the biosynthetic pathways for developing high oleic and low linolenic lines. Accordingly, tools such as microspore and ovule culture, embryo rescue, isolation of trait specific genes especially for aphid, Sclerotinia and alternaria blight resistance, etc. along with identification of potential lines based on genetic diversity can assist ongoing breeding programmes. In this book, we highlight the recent molecular, genetic and genomic interventions made to achieve crop improvement in terms of yield increase, quality and stress tolerance in Brassica, with a special emphasis in Rapeseed-mustard.

  • This book consists of select peer-reviewed papers from the International Conference on Sustainable Environmental Engineering and Science (SEES) 2019. The main focus of the book is to propose sustainable technologies to address the growing environmental challenges. The contents cover several topics of relevance such as air pollution, solid waste management, wastewater treatment, industrial pollution, and suggests eco-friendly and cost-effective techniques to tackle them. Given the range of topics covered, the book will be useful to researchers and professionals working in the multidisciplinary area of sustainability. 

  • This book covers both theory and applications in the automation of software testing tools and techniques for various types of software (e.g. object-oriented, aspect-oriented, and web-based software). When software fails, it is most often due to lack of proper and thorough testing, an aspect that is even more acute for object-oriented, aspect-oriented, and web-based software. Further, since it is more difficult to test distributed and service-oriented architecture-based applications, there is a pressing need to discuss the latest developments in automated software testing. This book discusses the most relevant issues, models, tools, challenges, and applications in automated software testing. Further, it brings together academic researchers, scientists, and engineers from a wide range of industrial application areas, who present their latest findings and identify future challenges in this fledging research area.

  • This edited book summarizes numerous research studies on remote sensing and GIS of natural resource management for the Himalaya region done by Indian Institutions and Universities over the last decade. It gives an overview of hydrometeorological studies on Himalayan water resources and addresses concerns in the development of water resources in this region, which is dealing with an increased pressure in population, industrialization and economic development. 
    While the source of some of the major rivers of India are found in the Himalayas, the glaciers and water bodies in the region are continuously shrinking leading to a depletion of water and deterioration of water quality. This is affecting a population of up to 2.5 billion people. The ecosystems have been under threat due to deforestation, loss of biodiversity, expansion of agriculture and settlement, overexploitation of natural resources, habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, mining, construction of roads and large dams, and unplanned tourism. Spaceborne remote sensing with its ability to provide synoptic and repetitive coverage has emerged as a powerful tool for assessment and monitoring of the Himalayan resources and phenomena. 
    This work serves as a resource to students, researchers, scientists, professionals, and policy makers both in India and on a global level. 

  • High-quality seed is essential for healthy crops and greater agricultural productivity. At the same time, advances in breeding technology require equivalent advances in seed technology. In order to ensure food security, it is crucial to develop seeds that are high yielding, and resistant to drought, heat, cold, and insects.

    Gathering the latest research in seed sciences, the book includes contributions on seed production in crops such as legumes, sugar, rice, wheat and other cereals. It discusses a range of topics, like the effect of climate change on seed quality, production and storage; seed rouging; seed certification for different crop species; seed biology; and seed pathologies and their effective management. Integrating basic and applied research, this compendium provides valuable insights for researchers and students in agricultural and life sciences; professionals involved in seed certification and those working in quarantine laboratories; as well as plant pathologists.