Several nano-scale devices have emerged that are capable of analysing plant diseases, nutrient deficiencies and any other ailments that may affect food security in agro-ecosystems. It has been envisioned that smart delivery systems can be developed and utilised for better management of agricultural ecosystems. These systems could exhibit beneficial, multi-functional characteristics, which could be used to assess and also control habitat-imposed stresses to crops.Nanoparticle-mediated smart delivery systems can control the delivery of nutrients or bioactive and/or pesticide molecules in plants. It has been suggested that nano-particles in plants might help determine their nutrient status and could also be used as cures in agro-ecosystems. Further, to enhance soil and crop productivity, nanotechnology has been used to create and deliver nano fertilizers, which can be defined as nano-particles that directly help supply nutrients for plant growth and soil productivity.
Nano-particles can be absorbed onto clay networks, leading to improved soil health and more efficient nutrient use by crops. Additionally, fertilizer particles can be coated with nano-particles that facilitate slow and steady release of nutrients, reducing loss of nutrients and enhancing their efficiency in agri-crops.
Although the use of nanotechnology in agro-ecosystems is still in its early stages and needs to be developed further, nano-particle-mediated delivery systems are promising solutions for the successful management of agri-ecosystems. In this context, the book offers insights into nanotechnology in agro-ecosystems with reference to biogenic nanoparticles. It highlights the:
o occurrence and diversity of Biogenic Nanoparticleso mechanistic approach involved in the synthesis of biogenic nanoparticleso synthesis of nanoparticles using photo-activation, and their fate in the soil ecosystemo potential applications of nanoparticles in agricultural systemso application and biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their characterizationo impact of biogenic nanoparticles on biotic stress to plantso mechanistic approaches involved in the antimicrobial effects and cytotoxicity of biogenic nanoparticleso role of biogenic nanoparticles in plant diseases managemento relevance of biological synthesized nanoparticles in the longevity of agricultural crops o design and synthesis of nano-biosensors for monitoring pollutants in water, soil and plant systemso applications of nanotechnology in agriculture with special refer to soil, water and plant sciencesA useful resource for postgraduate and research students in the field of plant and agricultural sciences, it is also of interest to researchers working in nano and biotechnology.
This book provides in-depth reviews of the role of Rhizobium in agriculture and its biotechnological applications. Individual chapters explore topics such as: the occurrence and distribution of Rhizobium; phenotypic and molecular characteristics of Rhizobium; impact of Rhizobium on other microbial communities in the rhizosphere; N2-fixation ability of Rhizobium; Rhizobium and biotic stress; Rhizobium-mediated restoration of an ecosystem; in silico analysis of the rhizobia pool; further biotechnological perspectives of Rhizobium.
Following a description of the various sources and factors influencing the contents of heavy metal pollution in post-catastrophic and agricultural soils, subsequent chapters examine soil enzymes and eggs as bio-monitors, lead adsorption, the effects of arsenic on microbial diversity, and the effects of Mediterranean grasslands on abandoned mines. A third section focuses on the adaptation strategies used by plants and bacteria, such as Pinus sylvestris in industrial areas, and the rhizosphere in contaminated tropical soils and soil treated with sewage sludge. Further topics addressed include strategies of bioremediation, e.g. using transgenic plants as tools for soil remediation.This new volume on heavy metals in soil will be of interest to researchers and scholars in microbial and plant biotechnology, agriculture, the environmental sciences and soil ecology.
The book `Root Biology' written by experts in the field, covers latest research on cellular, genetic, physiological and ecological developmental facets of root growth as well as the interaction of root with an array of microbes whether for the establishment of symbiosis, increasing plant growth or protecting plant from pathogens/attackers.
Plant roots provide an excellent model to study physiological, developmental and metabolic processes at a system level. Root system architecture - an excellent creation of nature, is closely interconnected with the availability of soil nutrients. Several strategies including biotechnological interventions are gaining interest and importance for sustainable food production and enhanced resource acquisition. Such strategies have largely focused on root traits for efficient utilization of soil resources. The biotechnological application of root biology is expected to promote the production of food while maintaining ecologically and economically sustainable production systems.
With a fortune of information on technical and experimental aspects useful in the laboratory, this extensive book is a valuable resource for researchers, academician and students in the broad field of microbiology, plant and fungal biology.
This book shares the latest insights into the genetic basis of molecular communication between plants and their microbial consortia. Further, the book highlights the capabilities of the rhizosphere and endosphere, which help manage ecosystem responses to climate change, nutrient cycling and sequestration of carbon; and discusses their application to the development and management of renewable energy sources.In their natural environments, plants are surrounded by a tremendous number of microorganisms. Some microbes directly interact with plants in a mutually beneficial fashion, while others colonize plants solely for their own advantage. In addition, microbes can indirectly affect plants by drastically altering their environments. Understanding the complex nature of the plant-microbe interface (PMI) can pave the way for novel strategies to improve plant productivity in an eco-friendly manner.
The PMI approach focuses on understanding the physical, molecular, and chemical interactions between organisms in order to determine their functional roles in biological, physical, chemical and environmental systems. Although several metabolites from plants and microbes have now been fully characterized, their roles in chemical interactions between these associates remain poorly understood, and require further investigation.
This book highlights the latest findings on fundamental aspects of composting, the interaction of various microorganisms, and the underlying mechanisms. In addition to addressing modern tools and techniques used for composting research, it provides an overview of potential composting applications in both agriculture and environmental reclamation.Composting is the process of organic waste decomposition, mediated by microorganisms. The end-product is called `compost' and can be used as a supplement to improve soil fertility. As the municipal waste generated in most developing countries contains a substantial amount of organic matter suitable for composting, this technology offers a win-win opportunity for stakeholders in terms of disposing of organic waste and providing organic fertilizers for agriculture. In addition, using compost reduces the dependency on harmful chemical fertilizers, and represents a sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative.
This book provides an overview of the latest advances concerning symbiotic relationships between plants and microbes, and their applications in plant productivity and agricultural sustainability.
Symbiosis is a living phenomenon including dynamic variations in the genome, metabolism and signaling network, and adopting a multidirectional perspective on their interactions is required when studying symbiotic organisms.
Although various plant-microbe symbiotic systems are covered in this book, it especially focuses on arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis and root nodule symbiosis, the two most prevalent systems. AM symbiosis involves the most extensive interaction between plants and microbes, in the context of phylogeny and ecology. As more than 90% of all known species of plants have the potential to form mycorrhizal associations, the productivity and species composition, as well as the diversity of natural ecosystems, are frequently dependent upon the presence and activity of mycorrhizas.
In turn, root nodule symbiosis includes morphogenesis and is formed by communication between plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The biotechnological application of plant-microbe symbiosis is expected to foster the production of agricultural and horticultural products while maintaining ecologically and economically sustainable production systems.
Designed as a hands-on guide, this book offers an essential resource for researchers and students in the areas of agri-biotechnology, soil biology and fungal biology.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge on plant-microbiome interactions and associations. It covers all major mechanistic approaches used to investigate microbes' impacts on plant growth promotion, disease control and health.
The industrial manufacture of nitrogen currently accounts for roughly 2% of the world's total energy consumption. Microbial products are expected to reduce the need for costly fertilizers, as well as chemical pesticides and fungicides. While beneficial microorganisms are increasingly being used in agriculture, abiotic and biotic stresses such as heat, drought, cold, and salt can quickly kill or render them useless in the field. However, discovering new and better treatments is a lengthy process due to the considerable microbial diversity found in soils.
Researchers have now proposed using biotechnological approaches to accelerate the process of microbial technology development. The fact that plant-associated microbes stimulate plant growth and development is well known, as the examples of rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi show. The mechanisms by which these microorganisms maintain plant growth include the production of phytohormones, fixation of nitrogen, and the mobilization of phosphorus and minerals. The plant microbiome is also involved in pathogen suppression, and especially the root microbiome acts as a protective shield against soil-borne pathogens.
A special feature of this book is its multidisciplinary approach, spanning from plant microbiology/biocontrol, fungal and bacterial endophytes, plant physiology, to biochemistry, proteomics and genomics. It is ideally suited for researchers and student of agri-biotechnology, soil biology and fungal biology.
This book gathers the latest insights into soil health and its sustainability, providing an up-to-date overview of the various aspects of soil quality and fertility management, e.g., plant-microbe interactions to maintain soil health; and the use of algal, fungal and bacterial fertilizers and earthworms for sustainable soil health and agricultural production.
It first discusses the past, present, and future scenarios of soil health, and then explores factors influencing soil health, as well as the consequences of degradation of soil health for sustainable agriculture. Lastly it highlights solutions to improve and maintain soil health so as to achieve greater productivity and sustainability without damaging the soil system or the environment.
Soil health is defined as the capacity of a soil to function within ecosystem frontiers, to sustain biological productivity, to maintain environmental quality and to promote plant, animal and human health. Soil health is established through the interactions of physical, chemical and biological properties, e.g., soil texture, soil structure, and soil organisms. Healthy soil provides adequate levels of macro- and micronutrients to plants and contains sufficient populations of soil microorganisms. As a result of the increasingly intensified agriculture over the past few decades, soils are now showing symptoms of exhaustion and stagnating or declining crop yields. Exploring these developments as well as possible solutions based on holistic and sustainable approaches, this book is a valuable resource for researchers in the area of soil and environmental science, agronomy, agriculture, as well as students in the field of botany, ecology and microbiology.
Electronic and electric waste (e-waste), defined as end-of-life electronic products, including computers, television sets, mobile phones, transformers, capacitors, wires and cables, are a major global environmental concern. The crude recycling of e-waste releases persistent toxic substances, such as heavy metals, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the environmental pollution and health risks caused by the improper disposal of e-waste has become an urgent issue.
This book offers an overview of e-waste history, sources, and entry routes in soil, air, water and sediment. It also addresses e-waste transport and fate, bioavailability and biomonitoring, e-waste risk assessment, impacts on the environment and public health. In addition, it discusses the impact of e-waste on soil microbial community diversity, structure and function and reviews the treatment and management strategies, such as bioremediation and phytoremediation, as well as policies and future challenges.
Given its scope, it is a valuable resource for students, researchers and scholars in the field of electronics manufacturing, environmental science and engineering, toxicology, environmental biotechnology, soil sciences and microbial ecology, as well as and plant biotechnology.
This book highlights recent advances in the field of plant-biotic interactions and explores current serious issues in the crop production industry. It is intended to attract more attention to these important, but often overlooked areas, and to stimulate new ideas for future research.
Plants are constantly under attack by pathogens, pests, and parasites, which can significantly impact worldwide food production and human health. While pathogens and pests attack and interconnect with their hosts in a variety of ways, plants have developed sophisticated immune systems to fight infections. In the field of plant-biotic interactions, most of the studies to date have focused on the function and signaling pathways of plant disease resistance proteins and pattern recognition receptors, as well as pathogen effector proteins.
In contrast, this book presents new and emerging research areas, and introduces students, researchers, academics, and policy advisors to the latest trends in e.g. microbial technology, environmental microbiology, agricultural science, the health sciences, biological sciences and other related disciplines.
This book provides essential molecular techniques and protocols for analyzing microbes that are useful for developing novel bio-chemicals, such as medicines, biofuels, and plant protection substances.The topics and techniques covered include: microbial diversity and composition; microorganisms in the food industry; mass cultivation of sebacinales; host-microbe interaction; targeted gene disruption; function-based metagenomics to reveal the rhizosphere microbiome; mycotoxin biosynthetic pathways; legume-rhizobium symbioses; multidrug transporters of yeast; drug-resistant bacteria; the fungal endophyte piriformospora indica; medicinal plants; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; biosurfactants in microbial enhanced oil recovery; and biocontrol of the soybean cyst nematode with root endophytic fungi; as well as microbe-mediated drought tolerance in plants.
This book summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil environment. It covers a wide range of topics to help readers understand antibiotics and ARGs in soils, the risks they pose for the environment, and options for effective control. In addition, it presents a range of essential tools and methodologies that can be used to address antibiotics and ARGs in a consistent, efficient, and cost-effective manner.Gathering contributions by international experts, the book addresses both theoretical aspects and practical applications.The topics discussed include antibiotics-producing microorganisms; the routes of entry and fate of antibiotics and resistance genes; biomonitoring approaches; dissemination of ARGs in soils; risk assessment; the impact of antibiotics and ARGs on the soil microbial community and other biota; bioremediation and biodegradation approaches; and soil management strategies for antibiotics and ARG-contaminated soils.As such, the book will be of interest to students, researchers and scholars in environmental science and engineering, toxicology, the medical and pharmaceutical sciences, environmental biotechnology, soil sciences, microbial ecology and plant biotechnology.Readers and Journals:1. This new volume on antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil environment will be of interest to students, researchers and scholars in environmental science and engineering, toxicology, the medical and pharmaceutical sciences, environmental biotechnology, soil sciences,microbial ecology and plant biotechnology.2. The book will provide government authorities all over the world with effective strategies for the management of antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARG)- contaminated soil. 3. Gathering contributions by international experts,the book addresses both theoretical aspects and practical applications.
This is the fourth updated and revised edition of a well-received book that emphasises on fungal diversity, plant productivity and sustainability. It contains new chapters written by leading experts in the field.
This book is an up-to-date overview of current progress in mycorrhiza and association with plant productivity and environmental sustainability. The result is a must hands-on guide, ideally suited for agri-biotechnology, soil biology, fungal biology including mycorrrhiza and stress management, academia and researchers.
The topic of this book is particularly relevant to researchers involved in mycorrhiza, especially to food security, plant microbe interaction and environmental protection.
Mycorrhizas are symbioses between fungi and the roots of higher plants. As more than 90% of all known species of plants have the potential to form mycorrhizal associations, the productivity and species composition and the diversity of natural ecosystems are frequently dependent upon the presence and activity of mycorrhizas. The biotechnological application of mycorrhizas is expected to promote the production of food while maintaining ecologically and economically sustainable production systems.
Soil microorganisms play a major role in the degradation and recycling of organic material. Microbes are involved in the food web and strongly contribute to soil fertility. In the past, attention was mainly directed towards free-living or particle-bound microorganisms, while the role of intestinal microbes of soil animals has been neglected.
For the first time, "Intestinal Microorganisms of Termites and Other Invertebrates" focuses on the microbes in gut systems of soil animals. It starts with a profound overview of the biology of soil invertebrates. A major part deals with the gut microbiota of termites, the best investigated gut system of invertebrates. Termites are important soil processors in tropical and subtropical regions. Insight is given into the intestinal microbiota of further relevant primary litter decomposers, such as earthworms, springtails, millipeds, and woodlice. Novel techniques for studying intestinal microbes complete the volume.
This book describes how microbes can be used as effective and sustainable resources to meet the current challenge of finding suitable and economical solutions for biopharmaceuticals, enzymes, food additives, nutraceuticals, value added biochemicals and microbial fuels, and discusses various aspects of microbial regulatory activity and its applications. It particularly focuses on the design, layout and other relevant issues in industrial microbe applications. Moreover, it discusses the entire microbial-product supply chain, from manufacturing sites to end users, both in domestic and international markets, providing insights into the global marketing of microbes and microbial biomass-derived products. Further, it includes topics concerning the effective production and utilization of eco-friendly biotechnology industries. It offers a valuable, ready-to-use guide for technologists and policymakers developing new biotechnologies.
The book addresses current public concern about the adverse effect of agrochemicals and their effect on the agro-ecosystem. This book also aims to satisfy and contribute to the increasing interest in understanding the co-operative activities among microbial populations and their interaction with plants. It contains chapters on a variety of interrelated aspects of plant-microbe interactions with a single theme of stress management and sustainable agriculture. The book will be very useful for students, academicians, researcher working on plant-microbe interaction and also for policy makers involved in food security and sustainable agriculture.
This book sheds new light on the role of various environmental factors in regulating the metabolic adaptation of medicinal and aromatic plants. Many of the chapters present cutting-edge findings on the contamination of medicinal plants through horizontal transfer, as well as nanomaterials and the biosynthesis of pharmacologically active compounds. In addition, the book highlights the impacts of environmental factors (e.g., high and low temperature, climate change, global warming, UV irradiation, intense sunlight and shade, ozone, carbon dioxide, drought, salinity, nutrient deficiency, agrochemicals, waste, heavy metals, nanomaterials, weeds, pests and pathogen infections) on medicinal and aromatic plants, emphasizing secondary metabolisms. In recent years, interest has grown in the use of bioactive compounds from natural sources. Medicinal and aromatic plants constitute an important part of the natural environment and agro-ecosystems, and contain a wealth of chemical compounds known as secondary metabolites and including alkaloids, glycosides, essential oils and other miscellaneous active substances. These metabolites help plants cope with environmental and/or external stimuli in a rapid, reversible and ecologically meaningful manner. Additionally, environmental factors play a crucial role in regulating the metabolic yield of these biologically active molecules. Understanding how medicinal plants respond to environmental perturbations and climate change could open new frontiers in plant production and in agriculture, where successive innovation is urgently needed due to the looming challenges in connection with global food security and climate change. Readers will discover a range of revealing perspectives and the latest research on this vital topic.
This is the fourth updated and revised edition of a well-received book that emphasises on fungal diversity, plant productivity and sustainability. It contains new chapters written by leading experts in the field.This book is an up-to-date overview of current progress in mycorrhiza and association with plant productivity and environmental sustainability. The result is a must hands-on guide, ideally suited for agri-biotechnology, soil biology, fungal biology including mycorrhiza and stress management, academia and researchers. The topic of this book is particularly relevant to researchers involved in mycorrhiza, especially to food security and environmental protection.Mycorrhizas are symbioses between fungi and the roots of higher plants. As more than 90% of all known species of plants have the potential to form mycorrhizal associations, the productivity and species composition and the diversity of natural ecosystems are frequently dependent upon the presence and activity of mycorrhizas. The biotechnological application of mycorrhizas is expected to promote the production of food while maintaining ecologically and economically sustainable production systems.
This is the fourth updated and revised edition of a well-received book that emphasises on fungal diversity, plant productivity and sustainability. It contains new chapters written by leading experts in the field.This book is an up-to-date overview of current progress in mycorrhiza and association with plant productivity and environmental sustainability. The result is a must hands-on guide, ideally suited for agri-biotechnology, soil biology, fungal biology including mycorrrhiza and stress management, academia and researchers. The topic of this book is particularly relevant to researchers involved in mycorrhiza, especially to food security and environmental protection. Mycorrhizas are symbioses between fungi and the roots of higher plants. As more than 90% of all known species of plants have the potential to form mycorrhizal associations, the productivity and species composition and the diversity of natural ecosystems are frequently dependent upon the presence and activity of mycorrhizas. The biotechnological application of mycorrhizas is expected to promote the production of food while maintaining ecologically and economically sustainable production systems.
This book discusses the generation of green energy, providing fundamental scientific information on the availability of sustainable biological resources. It addresses inter- and multidisciplinary topics, including policies and strategies for sustainable energy; the environment and advanced renewable energy technology; electricity generation through solid waste management; and direct electricity generation using microbial fuel cells. It examines the application of the principles and quantitative relationships that define the process - as an effective technique to teach applied aspects of biomass energy technology conversion. In addition, it describes the latest commercialisation of microbial fuel cell technologies, bio-diesel production from microalgae, fermentation technology based on biobutanol from bacteria, and direct ethanol production from microalgae with attractive illustrations and models developed by corporate sectors.
This book covers broad areas in the conservation of microorganisms. It addresses the short, medium and long-term preservation of agriculturally important microorganisms, as well as culture collections and their roles. The respective chapters address topics such as conventional approaches to bacterial, fungal and algal preservation, as well as methods and strategies for preserving recalcitrant microorganisms. Readers will also find the latest insights into the preservation of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) fungi and ecology, diversity and conservation of endophytes, and entamopathogenic fungi. Microbes of animal and dairy origin, their preservation and biosafety issues are also explored.
Microorganisms are the silent and unseen majority of life on Earth, and are characterized by a high degree of genetic and metabolic diversity. It is well documented that no branch of science or society is unaffected by microbial interventions. Researchers have documented microorganisms from such extreme and unique environments as deserts and hydrothermal vents, and with specific traits that are currently being exploited in agriculture, industry, medicine and biotechnological applications. Such great potential can only be found in microorganisms. The aim of this book - the first entirely devoted to the conservation of microorganisms, and to regulatory mechanisms for access and benefits sharing as per Biological Diversity (BD) Act 2002 - is to promote awareness of our world's microbial wealth, and to introduce readers to strategies and methodologies for the conservation of microorganisms, which could ultimately save human life on Earth.
Sebacinales have emerged as a fascinating order with mutualistic plant-fungal symbionts that consists of exclusively beneficial fungi.This volume of Soil Biology presents an overview of the current results in Sebacinales research with a focus on the potential of these fungi in crop improvement and stress tolerance. The authors demonstrate that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their associations with roots, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. With this extraordinary diversity, Sebacinales with the key fungus Piriformospora indica might possess remarkable significance in natural ecosystems. Their biotechnological applications are expected to improve the quality of crops while maintaining ecologically and economically sustainable production systems.
This book provides systematic information on the lychee and modern tools to promote its sustainable growth and development. Including dedicated chapters on the evolution and diversification of the lychee, it highlights its genetic makeup and reciprocal exogenous factors, addressing the narrow genetic pool and lack of natural biodiversity. It also discusses issues related to post-harvest losses and robust approaches at the commercial level. Further, the book offers insights on in vitro propagation methods and prospective transgenic approaches for selected lychee cultivars. Chapters on the production of bioactive compounds and their enhancement through genetic transformation and elicitation are also included, reflecting the latest advances in the field of lychee biotechnology. Lastly, the book explores the use of molecular marker techniques to achieve the desired improvements in fruit trees' medicinal and aesthetic value.