?The Variable-Order Fractional Calculus of Variations is devoted to the study of fractional operators with variable order and, in particular, variational problems involving variable-order operators. This brief presents a new numerical tool for the solution of differential equations involving Caputo derivatives of fractional variable order. Three Caputo-type fractional operators are considered, and for each one, an approximation formula is obtained in terms of standard (integer-order) derivatives only. Estimations for the error of the approximations are also provided.
The contributors consider variational problems that may be subject to one or more constraints, where the functional depends on a combined Caputo derivative of variable fractional order. In particular, they establish necessary optimality conditions of Euler-Lagrange type. As the terminal point in the cost integral is free, as is the terminal state, transversality conditions are also obtained.
The Variable-Order Fractional Calculus of Variations is a valuable source of information for researchers in mathematics, physics, engineering, control and optimization; it provides both analytical and numerical methods to deal with variational problems. It is also of interest to academics and postgraduates in these fields, as it solves multiple variational problems subject to one or more constraints in a single brief.
This edited volume is a collection of selected research articles discussing the analysis of infectious diseases by using mathematical modelling in recent times. Divided into two parts, the book gives a general and country-wise analysis of Covid-19. Analytical and numerical techniques for virus models are presented along with the application of mathematical modelling in the analysis of their spreading rates and treatments. The book also includes applications of fractional differential equations as well as ordinary, partial and integrodifferential equations with optimization methods. Probability distribution and their bio-mathematical applications have also been studied. This book is a valuable resource for researchers, scholars, biomathematicians and medical experts.