This book presents four survey articles on different topics in mathematical analysis that are closely linked to concepts and applications in physics. Specifically, it discusses global aspects of elliptic PDEs, Berezin-Toeplitz quantization, the stability of solitary waves, and sub-Riemannian geometry. The contributions are based on lectures given by distinguished experts at a summer school in Göttingen. The authors explain fundamental concepts and ideas and present them clearly. Starting from basic notions, these course notes take the reader to the point of current research, highlighting new challenges and addressing unsolved problems at the interface between mathematics and physics. All contributions are of interest to researchers in the respective fields, but they are also accessible to graduate students.