This book provides an overview of pulmonary hypertensive diseases, the current understanding of their pathobiology, and a contemporary approach to diagnosis and treatment. It discusses the definition and classification of these disorders and the epidemiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); explores the approach to diagnosis and evaluation via methods such as echocardiography, right heart catheterization, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing; describes the major drug classes used to treat PAH and the cell signaling pathways that they target as well as adjunct and investigative therapies; and highlights special situations that are particularly challenging in the management of PAH. Written by experts in their respective fields, Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Hypertension is a valuable resource for pulmonologists, cardiologists, and practitioners in internal medicine and critical care.
This book focuses on data describing the roles of free radicals and related reactive species, and antioxidants, in the causes and treatments of diseases, examining both clinical and pre-clinical trials, as well as basic research. The book is divided into sub-sections with chapters on toxicological mechanisms, agents that produce toxicity, and special topics including areas such as antioxidant supplements, oxygen toxicity, toxicogenomics, and marine biology.Studies on Experimental Toxicology and Pharmacology promotes the concept of using biomarkers of free radical- and reactive species-induced injury as adjuncts to classical laboratory testing and the ability of antioxidants to provide cellular protection. There is increasing evidence that free radicals and other reactive species are causative, or at least supporting factors, that impact organisms and cause numerous tissue disorders.With contributions from international experts in the field, this volume is a valuable resource for researchers and postgraduate students in toxicology and related fields, as well as clinicians and clinical researchers.