In this book, Dr. Jun Zhang rebuts the widely-held view that Chinese economic growth is unsustainable due to low consumption and a reliance on exports and enormous fixed-asset investments. Though many believe this "structural imbalance" of the Chinese economy will become a serious problem in the long run, Zhang holds a bullish long-term outlook owing to China's long-term economic development.
For Zhang, China's structural problems are greatly exaggerated and certain structures, such as regional governing entities, ensure that China will not face the same economic issues that Japan encountered. Through regional competition, regional governments will persevere; Zhang predicts that China will overtake the US as a superpower. Zhang concludes by acknowledging the real dangers facing China's economy, and offering advice on the reforms needed to ensure continued growth.
A comprehensive resource to the development and recent progress of zwitterion-oriented cycloadditions promoted by organoamines, organophosphines, N-heterocyclic carbenes Organocatalytic Cycloadditions for Synthesis of Carbo- and Heterocycles offers a clear explanationto thedevelopment of and the information on the latest research pertaining to zwitterion-oriented cycloadditions promoted by organoamines, organophosphines, N-heterocyclic carbenes. The authors-noted experts in the field-include a comprehensive review to the investigations of the reaction mechanisms and explore the synthesis of different products from the same starting materials. Filled with illustrative examples and designed to be accessible, the text shows how to control the chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity and explains the further design of novel cycloaddition reactions catalyzed by organoamines and organophosphines based on zwitterion-oriented synthetic strategy. This important text: Explains why the formation of carbo- and heterocycles is a key transformation in organic synthesis. Offers a clear description to the development of zwitterion-oriented cycloadditions promoted by organoamines, organophosphines, N-heterocyclic carbenes, and explores the latest research Contains the most current examples involving synthetic transformations of organocatalytic cycloadducts Includes contributions from noted experts in the field of organic synthesis Written for organic chemists, pharmaceutical chemists, chemists in industry, graduates, and librarians, Organocatalytic Cycloadditions for Synthesis of Carbo- and Heterocyclesis is the essential guide to the topic.
This book systematically reviews the development of social policy since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. As such, it begins by investigating the establishment of the Insurance System in the early period, then moves on to the planned economy period, the Cultural Revolution period, and the Reform and Opening Up period, characterized by efforts to adapt to a market economy. For each period, the book examines the effect of the economic system, the mode of production and forms of employment for social policy design, so as to clarify the developing context of Chinese social policy, and to help readers grasp the legal aspects of social policy development and the main problems China faces in its present economic developmental stage.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest research in the role of non-neuronal cells - astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, microglia, and other immune cells in ischemic brain injury and long-term recovery. In these cases, neurodegeneration and brain repair are controlled in a sophisticated system, incorporating interactions between different cell types and cellular systems. Also explored are the therapeutic strategies that target non-neuronal responses after stroke and their translational potentials.
This handbook has been designed to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the art review and update of the major issues and challenges specific to fine needle aspiration (FNA) and small tissue core biopsies, which have emerged as primary modalities in establishing a definitive cancer diagnosis in the field of anatomic pathology, both in the U.S. and worldwide. Making an accurate diagnosis from a limited sample can be quite challenging yet crucial to patient care. The handbook, using the most current and evidence-based resources, will 1) emphasize a triple test (clinical, radiologic, and cytologic/histologic correlation); 2) stress the importance of cellblock preparation/small tissue core biopsy in modern cytopathology; 3) include over 100 diagnostic immunostaining panels/tables to address the utility and importance of ancillary studies; 4) incorporate relevant FISH and molecular tests into each chapter; and 5) summarize the pearls and pitfalls of FNA/small tissue biopsies at the beginning of each chapter. The book also includes highly practical presentations of typical case scenarios seen in an anatomic pathology laboratory. These are in the form of case presentations with step-by-step expert analysis. Sample cases include common but challenging situations, such as work-up of a tumor of unknown origin, evaluation of well-differentiated malignant tumors vs. benign/reactive lesions, identification of newly described tumor entities, and implementation of best practice in immunohistochemistry and molecular testing in a difficult case.
Handbook of Practical Fine Needle Aspiration and Small Tissue Biopsies is written by recognized experts in their fields and provides a unique and valuable resource in the field of cytopathology, both for those currently in training and for those already in clinical practice at various skill levels. It represents a new, comprehensive yet concise resource on these timely and critical topics.v>
Foreign aid has connected China and the international community through many channels, and created new types of strong partnerships throughout the world. As a recipient country, China and donors have engaged in an unprecedentedly deep level of cooperation on development-related issues. China's development experience has resulted in key changes to the relationships and partnerships between China and donors, from receiving foreign aid to entering into development cooperation. China has provided valuable experiences for other developing countries, experiences that are all the more relevant because they have revealed key factors at work in developing recipient countries. This has also led China to form closer cooperative relationships with other developing countries with regard to development issues. In short, foreign aid has changed China.
This book introduces the optimal online charging control of electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in smart grids. The ultimate goal is to minimize the total energy cost as well as reduce the fluctuation of the total power flow caused by the integration of the EVs and renewable energy generators.
Using both theoretic analysis and data-driven numerical results, the authors reveal the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed control techniques. A major benefit of these control techniques is their practicality, since they do not rely on any non-causal knowledge of future information.
Researchers, operators of power grids, and EV users will find this to be an exceptional resource. It is also suitable for advanced-level students of computer science interested in networks, electric vehicles, and energy systems.
This book discusses how biological molecules exert their function and regulate biological processes, with a clear focus on how conformational dynamics of proteins are critical in this respect. In the last decade, the advancements in computational biology, nuclear magnetic resonance including paramagnetic relaxation enhancement, and fluorescence-based ensemble/single-molecule techniques have shown that biological molecules (proteins, DNAs and RNAs) fluctuate under equilibrium conditions. The conformational and energetic spaces that these fluctuations explore likely contain active conformations that are critical for their function. More interestingly, these fluctuations can respond actively to external cues, which introduces layers of tight regulation on the biological processes that they dictate. A growing number of studies have suggested that conformational dynamics of proteins govern their role in regulating biological functions, examples of this regulation can be found in signal transduction, molecular recognition, apoptosis, protein / ion / other molecules translocation and gene expression. On the experimental side, the technical advances have offered deep insights into the conformational motions of a number of proteins. These studies greatly enrich our knowledge of the interplay between structure and function. On the theoretical side, novel approaches and detailed computational simulations have provided powerful tools in the study of enzyme catalysis, protein / drug design, protein / ion / other molecule translocation and protein folding/aggregation, to name but a few. This work contains detailed information, not only on the conformational motions of biological systems, but also on the potential governing forces of conformational dynamics (transient interactions, chemical and physical origins, thermodynamic properties). New developments in computational simulations will greatly enhance our understanding of how these molecules function in various biological events.
This book presents a unified framework for the tractable analysis of large-scale, multi-antenna wireless networks using stochastic geometry. This mathematical analysis is essential for assessing and understanding the performance of complicated multi-antenna networks, which are one of the foundations of 5G and beyond networks to meet the ever-increasing demands for network capacity. Describing the salient properties of the framework, which makes the analysis of multi-antenna networks comparable to that of their single-antenna counterparts, the book discusses effective design approaches that do not require complex system-level simulations. It also includes various application examples with different multi-antenna network models to illustrate the framework's effectiveness.
Recent research has revealed the importance of immunological mechanisms and inflammation in delaying damage and/or promoting repair after an acute injury to the central nervous system. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the role of immunological mechanisms and therapies for treating acute neurological injuries such as cerebral ischemia, hemorrhage, and brain and spinal cord trauma. In several sections, the contributing authors provide a review of immunological mechanisms involved in neurological injury and of various translational and clinical research aimed at harnessing those mechanisms for better patient outcomes.?
The blood-brain-barrier serves to encapsulate and protect the central nervous system, but it also presents a major barricade to therapeutic drug delivery. Poor penetration is the most common hurdle to translating a promising experimental therapy that uses invasive delivery methods to a clinically useful application. In the last 10 years, intranasal delivery of various therapeutic compounds including small chemicals, large proteins, and even stem cells has proven to be very effective in bypassing the blood-brain-barrier and has led to some important advances in translational research for stroke and other neurological diseases. The proposed book will bring together reports from various labs around the world who have had successes in pre-clinical studies of intranasal therapies for various diseases including adult and perinatal stroke, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and others.?
This Springerbreif introduces a threshold-based channel sparsification approach, and then, the sparsity is exploited for scalable channel training. Last but not least, this brief introduces two scalable cooperative signal detection algorithms in C-RANs. The authors wish to spur new research activities in the following important question: how to leverage the revolutionary architecture of C-RAN to attain unprecedented system capacity at an affordable cost and complexity.
Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) is a novel mobile network architecture that has a lot of significance in future wireless networks like 5G. the high density of remote radio heads in C-RANs leads to severe scalability issues in terms of computational and implementation complexities. This Springerbrief undertakes a comprehensive study on scalable signal processing for C-RANs, where `scalable' means that the computational and implementation complexities do not grow rapidly with the network size.
This Springerbrief will be target researchers and professionals working in the Cloud Radio Access Network (C-Ran) field, as well as advanced-level students studying electrical engineering.
This volume covers the science of ALDH enzymes in relation to chronic disease processes and the future therapeutic potentials of targeting ALDH in these processes. It thoroughly reviews the roles of ALDH family in alcohol metabolism, as well as recent findings of their emerging roles in a variety of human pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, stroke, cancer, liver diseases and kidney diseases. Delicate contribution of ALDH enzymes in the therapeutics against chronic diseases is also discussed. It demonstrates the unique value of targeting genetic polymorphism in ALDH enzymes in personalized medicine. The book will appeal to scientists, physicians, graduate and professional students in the fields of ALDH enzymes, alcohol metabolism, cardiometabolic and other chronic diseases. Pharmaceutical and other companies developing new tools for cardiometabolic and chronic diseases treatment will also find this a valuable resource.
This book comprehensively and systematically demonstrates the theory and practice of designing, synthesizing and improving the performance of fuels. The contents range from polycyoalkane fuels, strained fuels, alky-diamondoid fuels, hypergolic and nanofluid fuels derived from fossil and biomass. All the chapters together clearly describe the important aspects of high-energy-density fuels including molecular design, synthesis route, physiochemical properties, and their application in improving the aerocraft performance. Vivid schematics and illustrations throughout the book enhance the accessibility to the relevant theory and technologies. This book provides the readers with fundamentals on high-energy-density fuels and their potential in advanced aerospace propulsion, and also provides the readers with inspiration for new development of advanced aerospace fuels.
Despite numerous recent studies and exciting discoveries in the field, only limited treatments are available today for the victims of acute brain and spinal cord injuries. Animal Models of Acute Neurological Injuries, Second Edition, provides a standardized methodology manual designed to eliminate the inconsistent preparations and variability that often inhibit advances in this specialized research field. In the 10 years since publication of the first edition of this book, some animal models have become obsolete, some have stood the test of time, and newer models have emerged to enhance our knowledge of acute neurological injuries. The second edition continues to offer the research community tested approaches for this area of investigation.As with the first edition, top experts have developed and contributed these animal models. The book's focus remains hands-on, practical applications of the models, rather than a theoretical approach. Each chapter contains a proven procedure enhanced by clear figures, illustrations, or videos. This new edition presents its readily reproducible protocols with clarity and consistency to best aid neuroscientists and neurobiologists. As with the first edition, the second edition is comprehensive and cutting-edge. Animal Models of Acute Neurological Injuries, Second Edition, is an ideal guide for research professionals, at all stages of their careers, who wish to pursue this vital course of study with the proficiency and precision required by the field.
The recent developments in wireless communications, networking, and embedded systems have driven various innovative Internet of Things (IoT) applications, e.g., smart cities, mobile healthcare, autonomous driving and drones. A common feature of these applications is the stringent requirements for low-latency communications. Considering the typical small payload size of IoT applications, it is of critical importance to reduce the size of the overhead message, e.g., identification information, pilot symbols for channel estimation, and control data. Such low-overhead communications also help to improve the energy efficiency of IoT devices. Recently, structured signal processing techniques have been introduced and developed to reduce the overheads for key design problems in IoT networks, such as channel estimation, device identification, and message decoding. By utilizing underlying system structures, including sparsity and low rank, these methods can achieve significant performance gains.This book provides an overview of four general structured signal processing models: a sparse linear model, a blind demixing model, a sparse blind demixing model, and a shuffled linear model, and discusses their applications in enabling low-overhead communications in IoT networks. Further, it presents practical algorithms based on both convex and nonconvex optimization approaches, as well as theoretical analyses that use various mathematical tools.
This book is a guide to new and emerging PET technology, instrumentation, and its place in clinical practice. PET technology is currently moving from the conventional photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector based PET to the new generation, solid state light sensor detector. This is a technological leap and holds significant implications for the use of PET imaging. This book introduces and describes the emerging and new generation of PET instrumentations and technologies across manufactures, focusing on solid-state PET detector designs, system characteristics, and clinical practices as well as future advanced Time-of-Flight (TOF) PET technologies.
Organized into three sections, the basics of PET imaging; solid state digital PET instrumentation, technology, and clinical practice; and a look to the future of PET imaging, chapters present a full picture of PET imaging, where we are and where we will be. Nuclear medicine physicians, physicists, and technologists can use this book to better understand future PET systems, novel PET technologies, and potential game changes of clinical PET practice.
This proceedings volume gathers together selected works from the 2018 "Asymptotic, Algebraic and Geometric Aspects of Integrable Systems" workshop that was held at TSIMF Yau Mathematical Sciences Center in Sanya, China, honoring Nalini Joshi on her 60th birthday. The papers cover recent advances in asymptotic, algebraic and geometric methods in the study of discrete integrable systems.
The workshop brought together experts from fields such as asymptotic analysis, representation theory and geometry, creating a platform to exchange current methods, results and novel ideas.
This volume's articles reflect these exchanges and can be of special interest to a diverse group of researchers and graduate students interested in learning about current results, new approaches and trends in mathematical physics, in particular those relevant to discrete integrable systems.
This edited book is one of the first to describe how Autonomous Virtual Humans and Social Robots can interact with real people and be aware of the surrounding world using machine learning and AI. It includes:· Many algorithms related to the awareness of the surrounding world such as the recognition of objects, the interpretation of various sources of data provided by cameras, microphones, and wearable sensors· Deep Learning Methods to provide solutions to Visual Attention, Quality Perception, and Visual Material Recognition
· How Face Recognition and Speech Synthesis will replace the traditional mouse and keyboard interfaces
· Semantic modeling and rendering and shows how these domains play an important role in Virtual and Augmented Reality Applications.Intelligent Scene Modeling and Human-Computer Interaction explains how to understand the composition and build very complex scenes and emphasizes the semantic methods needed to have an intelligent interaction with them. It offers readers a unique opportunity to comprehend the rapid changes and continuous development in the fields of Intelligent Scene Modeling.