This book addresses waste generation problems from various sectors, including industries, agriculture, and household. It focuses on how modern biotechnological approaches could help manage waste in an eco-friendly manner and generate precious bioenergy. It discusses the inadequate waste management systems damaging the environment and its adverse impacts on climate change-related problems. This book covers all the essential information regarding various types of waste and their management. It is a comprehensive compilation for understanding the efficient generation of bioenergy. It is a relevant reading material (resource) for anyone who wishes to study waste management as Chemist, Biologist, Biotechnologist, Industrialist, Ecologist, Microbiologist, Economist, and all disciplines related to the environment.
The book describes developments on some well-known problems regarding the relationship between orders of finite groups and that of their automorphism groups. It is broadly divided into three parts: the first part offers an exposition of the fundamental exact sequence of Wells that relates automorphisms, derivations and cohomology of groups, along with some interesting applications of the sequence. The second part offers an account of important developments on a conjecture that a finite group has at least a prescribed number of automorphisms if the order of the group is sufficiently large. A non-abelian group of prime-power order is said to have divisibility property if its order divides that of its automorphism group. The final part of the book discusses the literature on divisibility property of groups culminating in the existence of groups without this property. Unifying various ideas developed over the years, this largely self-contained book includes results that are either proved or with complete references provided. It is aimed at researchers working in group theory, in particular, graduate students in algebra.
The recent technologies for sustainable development and maintaining ecological integrity in the field of agriculture, forestry and environmental management for the green future.
Describes the recent technologies and issues to generate awareness among the global scientific community towards sustainable development.Covers various eco-friendly approaches for successful management of soil, water, forest, agriculture, and other natural resources.
Addresses the policy issues promoting conservation, protection and management of various natural resources.
Presents the issues of climate change and sustainable strategies to combat such a mega event.
The existence of life on the earth primarily depends upon the agriculture, forest and environment. The changing climate is imposing the multifaceted challenges in front of human civilization. The agroecosystem management practices and technologies leads to higher productivity with destruction of agricultural, forest and environmental habitat leading to soil-water-air pollution. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) plays a key role in the promoting research and developmental activities in various sectors to achieve the sustainable development goals under 2030 agenda.
Gradual growth of science and technology has imposed a significant pressure on the different ecosystem. In this context, approaches such as sustainable agriculture, forestry and eco-friendly technologies need to be address across the world. Keeping view of these facts this book underlines scientific chapters dealing with the issues with proper explanation, and accompanied by illustrative diagrams, tables, database as required. The editors have tried to provide a brief scenario about the current issues related to the agriculture, forestry and environment. Therefore, the book would be a very useful resource for academicians, scientists, and policy makers of the related field.
With the recent shift of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to organic agriculture, the employment of microbes that perform significant beneficial functions for plants has been highlighted. This book presents timely discussion and coverage on the use of microbial formulations, which range from powdered or charcoal-based to solution and secondary metabolite-based bioformulations. Bioformulation development of biofertilizers and biopesticides coupled with the advantages of nanobiotechnology propose significant applications in the agricultural section including nanobiosensors, nanoherbicides, and smart transport systems for the regulated release of agrochemical. Moreover, the formulation of secondary metabolites against individual phytopathogens could be used irrespective of geographical positions with higher disease incidences. The prospective advantages and uses of nanobiotechnology generate tremendous interest, as it could augment production of agricultural produce while being cost-effective both energetically and economically. This bioformulation approach is incomparable to existing technology, as the bioformulation would explicitly target the particular pathogen without harming the natural microbiome of the ecosystem.
Nanobiotechnology in Bioformulations covers the constraints associated with large-scale development and commercialization of bioinoculant formations. Furthermore, exclusive emphasis is be placed on next-generation efficient bioinoculants having secondary metabolite formulations with longer shelf life and advanced competence against several phytopathogens. Valuable chapters deal with bioformulation strategies that use divergent groups of the microbiome and include detailed diagrammatic and pictorial representation. This book will be highly beneficial for both experts and novices in the fields of microbial bioformulation, nanotechnology, and nano-microbiotechnology. It discusses the prevailing status and applications available for microbial researchers and scientists, agronomists, students, environmentalists, agriculturists, and agribusiness professionals, as well as to anyone devoted to sustaining the ecosystem.
This book discusses the role of salt in current agricultural approaches, including the low salt tolerance of agricultural crops and trees, impact of saline soils, and salt-resistant plants. Halophytes are extremely salt tolerant plants, which are able to grow and survive under salt at concentrations as high as 5 g/l by maintaining negative water potential. The salt-tolerant microbes inhabiting the rhizospheres of halophytes may contribute to their salt tolerance, and the rhizospheres of halophytic plants provide an ideal opportunity for isolating various groups of salt-tolerant microbes that could enhance the growth of different crops under salinity stress.
The book offers an overview of salt-tolerant microbes' ability to increase plant tolerance to salt to facilitate plant growth, the potential of the halophytes' rhizospheres as a reservoir of beneficial salt-tolerant microbes, their future application as bio-inoculants in agriculture and a valuable resource for an alternative way of improving crop tolerance to salinity and promoting saline soil-based agriculture. This special collection of reviews highlights some of the recent advances in applied aspects of plant (halophytes)-microbe interactions and their contribution towards eco-friendly approaches saline soil-based agriculture.
This book covers the area of tribology broadly, providing important introductory chapters to fundamentals, processing, and applications of tribology. The book is designed primarily for easy and cohesive understanding for students and practicing scientists pursuing the area of tribology with focus on materials. This book helps students and practicing scientists alike understand that a comprehensive knowledge about the friction and wear properties of advanced materials is essential to further design and development of new materials. The description of the wear micromechanisms of various materials will provide a strong background to the readers as how to design and develop new tribological materials. This book also places importance on the development of new ceramic composites in the context of tribological applications. Some of the key features of the book include: Fundamentals section highlights the salient issues of ceramic processing and mechanical properties of important oxide and non-oxide ceramic systems; State of the art research findings on important ceramic composites are included and an understanding on the behavior of silicon carbide (SiC) based ceramic composites in dry sliding wear conditions is presented as a case study; Erosion wear behavior of ceramics, in which case studies on high temperature erosion behavior of SiC based composites and zirconium diboride (ZrB2) based composites is also covered; Wear behavior of ceramic coatings is rarely discussed in any tribology related books therefore a case study explaining the abrasion wear behavior of WC-Co coating is provided. Finally an appendix chapter is included in which a collection of several types of questions including multiple choice, short answer and long answer are provided.
Achieving zero hunger and food security is a top priority in the United Nations Development Goals (UNDGs). In an era characterized by high population growth and increasing pressure on agricultural systems, efficiency in the use of natural resources has become central to sustainable agricultural practices. Fundamentally speaking, eco-efficiency is about maximizing agricultural outputs, in terms of quantity and quality, using less land, water, nutrients, energy, labor, or capital. The concept of eco-efficiency involves both the ecological and economic aspects of sustainable agriculture. It is therefore essential to understand the interaction of ecosystem constituents within the extensive agricultural landscape, as well as farmers' economic needs.
This book examines the latest eco-efficient practices used in agro-systems. Drawing upon research and examples from around the world, it offers an up-to-date overview, together with insights into directly applicable approaches for poly-cropping systems and landscape-scale management to improve the stability of agricultural production systems, helping achieve food security. The book will be of interest to educators, researchers, climate change scientists, capacity builders and policymakers alike. It can also be used as additional reading material for undergraduate and graduate courses on agriculture, forestry, soil science, and the environmental sciences.
This book focuses on food security in sustainable agriculture and nutrient management. The study of plant probiotic microbes' synergism using existing techniques has greatly improved our grasp of the structure and functioning of the plant microbiome. However, the function of plant probiotic microbes and their relation to plants' health in the context of food security, soil nutrient management, human and plant health are largely unexplored. Compared to human probiotics, diverse types and millions of microbiota inhabit plants, forming multifaceted and complicated ecological societies that stimulate plant growth and health through their combined metabolic activities. From the perspective of sustainable cropping systems, observing plant probiotics can provide insights on how to stimulate and maintain plant productivity, along with host stress tolerance and recycling of soil nutrients. This book combines reviews and original research articles to highlight the latest advances in plant probiotics, their specificity, diversity, function, as well as plant microbiome management to improve plant growth and productivity, nutrient management and human health.
This book explores various nanotechnology applications and their effect on the food industry, innovation and environmental issues. Nanotechnology has had a major impact on the food industry and the environment in recent years - it has increased the nutritional and functional properties of a number of food products, food packaging, food quality, crop protection, plant nutrient management and aided the food industry through the introduction of food diagnostics.
Fungal nanobionics has great prospects for developing new products with industrial, agriculture, medicine and consumer applications in a wide range of sectors. The fields of chemical engineering, agri-food, biochemical, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics and medical device development all employ fungal products, with fungal nanomaterials currently used in a wide range of applications, ranging from drug development to food industry and agricultural sector. The fungal agents emerge as an environmentally friendly, clean, non-toxic agent for the biogenic metal nanoparticles and employs both intracellular and extracellular methods. The simplicity of scaling up and downstream processing and the presence of fungal mycelia affording an increased surface area provide key advantages. In addition, the larger spectrum of synthesized nanoparticle morphologies and the substantially faster biosynthesis rate in cell-free filtrate (due to the higher amount of proteins secreted in fungi) make this a particularly enticing route. Understanding the diversity of fungi in assorted ecosystems, as well as their interactions with other microorganisms, animals and plants, is essential to underpin real and innovative technological developments and the applications of metal nanoparticles in many disciplines including agriculture, catalysis, and biomedical biosensors. Importantly, biogenic fungal nanoparticles show significant synergistic characteristics when combined with antibiotics and fungicides to offer substantially greater resistance to microbial growth and applications in nanomedicine ranging from topical ointments and bandages for wound healing to coated stents.
This book addresses "phyto-microbiome mediated stress regulation". Fundamentally speaking, the microbial community's importance for the survival of plants under stress conditions has already been confirmed. This book focuses on the roles of those rhizospheric microbiomes that are advantageous to plant developmental pathways. Gathering contributions by authors with specialized expertise in plant growth and health under stress conditions, as well as opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, the book reviews the functional aspects of rhizospheric microorganisms and how they impact plant health and disease. It offers a compendium of plant and microbial interactions at the level of multitrophic interactions, and identifies gaps between future demand and present research on plant stress. In closing, the authors highlight several directions for reshaping rhizosphere microbiomes in favor of microorganisms that are beneficial to plant growth and health.
This book primarily focuses on microbial colonization, its role in plant growth and nutrient cycling, mycorrhizae, and providing an overview of phytospheric microorganisms in sustainable crop systems. Despite the advances made in the study of plant-microbe synergism, the relation between microbes and plant health in the context of food security, soil nutrient management, human and plant health is still largely unexplored. Addressing that gap, the book presents reviews and original research articles that highlight the latest discoveries in plant probiotics, their specificity, diversity and function. Additional sections addressing nutrient management, human health, and plant microbiome management to improve plant productivity round out the coverage.
This book provides systematic information on the lychee and modern tools to promote its sustainable growth and development. Including dedicated chapters on the evolution and diversification of the lychee, it highlights its genetic makeup and reciprocal exogenous factors, addressing the narrow genetic pool and lack of natural biodiversity. It also discusses issues related to post-harvest losses and robust approaches at the commercial level. Further, the book offers insights on in vitro propagation methods and prospective transgenic approaches for selected lychee cultivars. Chapters on the production of bioactive compounds and their enhancement through genetic transformation and elicitation are also included, reflecting the latest advances in the field of lychee biotechnology. Lastly, the book explores the use of molecular marker techniques to achieve the desired improvements in fruit trees' medicinal and aesthetic value.
The book discusses ways to overcome the side effects of using hydrocarbon-based products as energy sources. Hydrocarbons produce raw crude oil waste of around 600,000 metric tons per annum, with a range of uncertainty of 200,000 metric tons per year. The various chapters in this book focus on approaches to reduce these wastes through the application of potential microbes, in a process called bioremediation. The book is a one-stop reference resource on the methods, mechanisms and application of the bio-composites, in the laboratory and field. Focusing on resolving a very pressing environmental issue, it not only provides details of existing challenges, but also offers deeper insights into the possibility of solving problems using hydrocarbon bioremediation.
This book offers a comprehensive compilation of biotic and abiotic factors that affect lychee production and commercialization. It addresses disease management for a range of causal agents, including the leaf mite (Acerya litchi Keifer), leaf miner (Conopomorpha cramerella), fruit borers (Conopomorpha cramerella, Platypeplus aprobola Meyer and Dichocrosis sp.), leaf webber / roller (Platypepla aprobola Meyer), litchi bug (Tessarotoma javanica Thunb), bark-eating caterpillar (Indarbela quadrinotata) and shoot borer (Chlumetia transversa), etc.Specialized chapters highlight potential approaches to optimizing and increasing the scope of lychee export, as well as systematic research on the development and refinement of technologies for enhancing lychee productivity and quality. Further aspects addressed include post-harvest handling, processing and value addition, the development of tolerant varieties, high yield and processing. As such, `Lychee Disease Management' offers a valuable resource dedicated to the global agriculture community, which is currently facing considerable production and commercialization problems.
This book explores the role of in silico deployment in connection with modulation techniques for improving sustainability and competitiveness in the agri-food sector; pharmacokinetics and molecular docking studies of plant-derived natural compounds; and their potential anti-neurodegenerative activity. It also investigates biochemical pathways for bacterial metabolite synthesis, fungal diversity and plant-fungi interaction in plant diseases, methods for predicting disease-resistant candidate genes in plants, and genes-to-metabolites and metabolites-to-genes approaches for predicting biosynthetic pathways in microbes for natural product discovery. The respective chapters elaborate on the use of in situ methods to study biochemical pathways for bacterial metabolite synthesis; tools for plant metabolites in defence; plant secondary metabolites in defence; plant growth metabolites; characterisation of plant metabolites; and identification of plant derived metabolites in the context of plant defence.
The book offers an unprecedented resource, highlighting state-of-the-art research work that will greatly benefit researchers and students alike, not only in the field of agriculture but also in many disciplines in the life sciences and plant sciences.
This volume explores the epigenetic alterations and their association with various human cancers. Considering one of human cancer as an example, individual chapters are focused on defining the role of epigenetic regulators and underlying mechanisms in cancer growth and progression. Epigenetic alteration including DNA methylation, histone modification, nucleosome positioning and non-coding RNAs expression are involved in a complex network of regulating expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and constitute an important event of the multistep process of carcinogenesis. Recent advances in the understanding of the epigenetic regulation and detailed information of these epigenetic changes in various cancers provide new avenues of advancements in diagnostics, prognostics, and therapies of this highly fatal disease.
The measurement of dependability attributes on real systems is a very time-consuming and costly affair, making analytical or simulation modeling the only viable solutions. Dependability of Networked Computer-based Systems explores reliability, availability and safety modeling of networked computer-based systems used in life-critical applications such as avionics, nuclear power plants, automobiles and chemical process industries.Dependability of Networked Computer-based Systems gives an overview of basic dependability modeling concepts and addresses new challenges in dependability modeling of networked computer-based systems, as well as new trends, their capabilities and limitations. It covers a variety of dependability modeling methods:stochastic processes,Markov and semi-Markov models,response-time distribution,stochastic Petri-net-based modeling formalisms, andMonte Carlo simulation models.Dependability of Networked Computer-based Systems provides students and researchers with a detailed overview of dependability models and analysis techniques. Practicing engineers will also find this text a useful guide to decision-making based on system dependability at the design, operation and maintenance stages.
The brief primarily focuses on the performance analysis of CNT based interconnects in current research scenario. Different CNT structures are modeled on the basis of transmission line theory. Performance comparison for different CNT structures illustrates that CNTs are more promising than Cu or other materials used in global VLSI interconnects. The brief is organized into five chapters which mainly discuss: (1) an overview of current research scenario and basics of interconnects; (2) unique crystal structures and the basics of physical properties of CNTs, and the production, purification and applications of CNTs; (3) a brief technical review, the geometry and equivalent RLC parameters for different single and bundled CNT structures; (4) a comparative analysis of crosstalk and delay for different single and bundled CNT structures; and (5) various unique mixed CNT bundle structures and their equivalent electrical models.
This book critically summarizes the effects of various suitable alloying elements and particulate reinforcements on mechanical and degradation properties of pure Mg and Mg alloys targeting biomedical applications. The suitability of alloying elements and particulate reinforcements are discussed based on their levels of toxic effects on human body. First attempt is made to study and discuss on the various available synthesizing techniques for fabrication of both impermeable and porous Mg materials. Further, more emphasis on development of new magnesium matrix nanocomposites (MMNC) is made owing to the similarities between natural bone and MMNCs as bio-"nanocomposite". The information on synthesis, toxicity of alloying elements and reinforcements and their effects on mechanical and degradation properties of pure Mg will enable the researchers to effectively design Mg alloys and composites targeting biomedical applications.
Aligning the latest practices, innovations and case studies with academic frameworks and theories, the broad area of multi-criteria and game theory applications in manufacturing and logistics is covered in comprehensive detail. Divided into two parts, part I is dedicated to `multi-criteria applications' and includes chapters on logistics with a focus on vehicle routing problems, a multi-objective decision making approach to select the best storage policy and an exploratory study to predict the most important factors that can lead to successful mobile supply chain management adoption for manufacturing firms. Part II covers `game theory applications' and encompasses the process of forming a coalition within a corporate network to the problem of integrating inventory and distribution optimization together with game theory to effectively manage supply networks.Providing a forum to investigate, exchange novel ideas and disseminate knowledge covering the broad area of multi-criteria and game theory applications in manufacturing and logistics, Applications of Multi-Criteria and Game Theory Approaches is an excellent reference for students, researchers but also managers and industry professionals working with manufacturing and logistics issues.
This book introduces a variety of neural network methods for solving differential equations arising in science and engineering. The emphasis is placed on a deep understanding of the neural network techniques, which has been presented in a mostly heuristic and intuitive manner. This approach will enable the reader to understand the working, efficiency and shortcomings of each neural network technique for solving differential equations. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a sound understanding of the foundations of neural networks and a comprehensive introduction to neural network methods for solving differential equations together with recent developments in the techniques and their applications.The book comprises four major sections. Section I consists of a brief overview of differential equations and the relevant physical problems arising in science and engineering. Section II illustrates the history of neural networks starting from their beginnings in the 1940s through to the renewed interest of the 1980s. A general introduction to neural networks and learning technologies is presented in Section III. This section also includes the description of the multilayer perceptron and its learning methods. In Section IV, the different neural network methods for solving differential equations are introduced, including discussion of the most recent developments in the field.Advanced students and researchers in mathematics, computer science and various disciplines in science and engineering will find this book a valuable reference source.
To satisfy the food demands of the global population, advanced technology based research is needed, that can extract the information from the plant metabolism and microbial gene pool and use it for improving plant health and productivity. Modern biotechnological tools have the ability to unlock the limitations of agricultural practices. However, the application of these tools is not well equipped. Moreover, eco-friendly agriculture by microbial inoculants is known to have positive influences on soil/plant health. Therefore it is relevant to explore the plant associated microbial niches, especially endophytes, epiphytes, and soil microbes and understand how they are benefitting each other. It can open new insights to develop sustainable agriculture practices by using consortia of microbes as plant helpers that recover the imbalanced agriculture systems and manage pathogenic diseases.
This book presents the updates about the plant associated microbiomes and their contemporary uses. It covers the knowledge gap between soil and plant helper microbiomes and their application in the agriculture and allied sectors. Modern insights of phytobiomes are explored in various chapters on a variety of interrelated aspects of the fascinating areas like plant microbial interaction, integrated pest management, soil fertility intensification, sustainable crop production, and disease management. Sections in the book describe how to plant beneficial microbiomes have been utilized for sustainable green farming, with the aim to resolve the global food problem without harming the soil and environment health. This book is intended for everyone who is involved in agriculture, microbial biotechnology, bioinformatics, and all disciplines related to microbial biotechnology. These include academic students, scientists, and researchers at universities, institutes, industries, and government organizations who want to understand microbial linkages in a shorter time. It contains basic information that will be help to the non-specialist readers to understand progressive research.
This book offers present-day retrospectives and future perspectives on `phytobiont' studies in the context of phyto-micro restitution, filling some of the information gaps in this promising research field. It discusses several ecosystem restitution strategies using dissimilar groups of microbes alone or in association with plants, as well as advances in metagenomics technology for studying in situ micro and macro communities in contaminated soil. It addresses topics such as the status quo, and the perspectives of microbial researchers and scientists, foresters, students, environmentalists, agriculturists and professional engineers. The rising pollution levels caused by xenobiotics is one of the biggest problems of our times, and as such the book comprehensively elaborates the latest research in this field and describes how the issue can be tackled using micro-organisms. With detailed diagrams and illustrations, the book is a valuable resource for experts and novices in the field of microbial bioremediation, phyto-bioremediation and environmental microbiology