Maria Lodovica Gullino

  • Spores Nouv.

    Spores

    Maria Lodovica Gullino

    • Springer
    • 7 Novembre 2021

    This book aims to describe, though in a quite light way, the social role of plant diseases, letting the reader know the topical importance of plant pathology, as well as the role of plant pathologists in our society. Plant diseases caused, in the past, significant economic losses, deaths, famine, wars, and migration. Some of them marked the history of entire countries. One example among many: the potato late blight in Ireland in 1845.  Today plant diseases are still the cause of deaths, often silent, in developing countries, and relevant economic losses in the industrialized ones.

    This book, written with much passion, neither wants to be a plant pathology text. On the contrary, it wants to describe, in simple words, often enriched by the author's personal experience, various plant diseases that, in different times and countries, did cause severe losses and damages. Besides the so-called "historical plant diseases", in the process of writing this book, she wanted to describe also some diseases that, though not causing famine or billions of losses, because of their peculiarity, might be of interest for the readers.
    Thus, this book has not been conceived and written for experts, but for a broader audience, of different ages, willing to learn more about plant health and to understand the reasons why so many people in the past and nowadays choose to be plant pathologists. This is because plants produce most of the food that we consume, that we expect to be healthy and safe, and because plants make the world beautiful.  The title "Spores" is evocative of the reproduction mean of fungi. Spores are small, light structures, often moving fast. The chapters of this book are short and concise. Just like spores!

  • This book stems from a four-year experience of a Training Programme addressing members of several Chinese governmental Institutions which, given the moment of extremely intense and fast development of their country, consider the issues of environment and sustainable growth among the foremost priorities. In particular, they expressed the need and will to develop policy and mana- ment tools that could lead to a strategy of sustainable growth from an economic, social and environmental point of view. The Programme turned out to be a success (it involved, up to June 2007, more than 2000 trainees from almost all the Provinces of China) precisely because the forces that answered those needs are extremely diverse as to include the academia, national and local governments, public institutions, private companies and international agencies. Following this feature, the book's contributors have been selected among more than 300 professors, researchers, policy makers, and entrepreneurs involved in the Training activities, thus offering different approaches to the key questions of environmental management.

  • This book is based on EU-funded project PLANTFOODSEC, covering intentional and unintentional threats to plant biosecurity and to food safety areas.Biosecurity is a strategic and integrated approach for analysing and managing relevant risks to human, animal and plant life and health, and associated risks to the environment. Interest in biosecurity has risen considerably over the last decade in parallel with the increasing trade in food and plant and animal products; higher levels of international travel; new outbreaks of transboundary diseases.Although most diseases outbreaks have natural causes or are the result of inadvertent introductions of pathogens through human activities, the risk of a deliberate introduction of a high consequence plant pathogen cannot be excluded. Vigilance is required to identify,  prevent and manage new and emerging issues that could impact on production capacity, plant biosecurity or food safety and food chain resilience.  

  • This collection of papers includes some of the presentation given at the International congress of Plant Pathology held in Beijing in 2013 in the session of Recent Development in Postharvest Pathology. Fruit production for human consumption is an important part of the market economy. Any waste during to spoilage and pest infestation, in the field and the postharvest phase, results in significant economic losses which are more pronounced as the losses occur closer to the time of produce sale. Careful handling of perishable produce is needed for the prevention of postharvest diseases at different stages during harvesting. Handling, transport and storage in order to preserve the high quality produce. The extent of postharvest losses varies markedly depending on the commodities and country estimated to range between 4 and 8% in countries where postharvest refrigeration facilities are well developed to 30% where facilities are minimal. Microbial decay is one of the main factors that determine losses compromising the quality of the fresh produce. For the development of an integrated approach for decay management, cultural, preharvest, harvest and postharvest practices should be regarded as essential components that influence the complex interactions between host, pathogen, and environmental conditions. Orchards practices including preharvest fungicide applications can also directly reduce the development of postharvest fruit decay. Among postharvest practices, postharvest fruit treatments with fungicide are the most effective means to reduce decay. Ideally, these fungicides protect the fruit from infections that occur before treatment, including pathogen causing quiescent infections, as well from infection that are initiated after treatment during postharvest handling, shipment and marketing. The implementation of these alternatives techniques often requires modifying currently used postharvest practices and development of new formulation for their applications.The present chapters deal with the newest report related to postharvest pathology in the world.

  • This  book is part of the Plant Pathology in the 21st Century Series, started in the occasion of the IX International Congress of Plant Pathology, Torino, 2008.In conjuction with the Xth International Congress of Plant Pathology, held in Beijing in August 2013.Although deriving from a Congress, the book will not have the format of traditional Proceedings, but will be organized as a resource book.  It will be based on invited lectures presented at the Congress as well as by other chapters selected by the editors among offered papers.This book will cover a topic very important in the field of plant pathology, dealing with detection and diagnostics. This field of research is continuously moving forwards, due to innovation in techniques. The application of new detection and  diagnostic technologies are relevant to many applied fields in agriculture. The different chapters will provide a very complete figure of the topic, from general and basic aspects to practical aspects.

  • This volume continues the series of books on  "Plant Pathology in the 21st Century", and contains the papers given at the 10th International Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP 2013) held in Beijing, August 25-30, 2013 concerning seed health.Many pathogens are transmitted throughout infected seeds and propagation material .The fact that propagation material production is very much concentrated in few establishments, favors the quick spread of new diseases throughout seed commercialization. This phenomenon is very much accelerated in a globalized system.The book covers case studies of contamination, aspects of detection and diagnosis as well as disease management strategies, with special emphasis towards seed treatments with unconventional products.This book will be useful for all plant pathologists as well as students in advanced courses.

  • This book contains fuller versions of the papers and posters presented in the Knowledge and Technology Transfer and Teaching Plant Pathology sessions at the 9th International Congress of Plant Pathology held in Turin, Italy in 2008. Communication is an essential area for plant pathologists and it is not just the publication of results in the scientific press that is important. In a world where there is a major shortage of food and where a significant amount of it is destroyed by pests and diseases before it ever reaches the consumer, it is important to provide support to those who produce the food in order to reduce the losses. Reducing crop losses not only has an impact on health, but also wealth and, therefore, the ability to survive. With an ever-increasing demand on food supplies due to increases in population, and changes in life-style associated with rising incomes in certain parts of the world, plant pathologists have a pivotal role to play in contributing to global food security. Aspects of crop protection have lost favour with the general public because of concerns about environmental pollution and genetic modification of crops. This has had a `knock on' effect in the recruitment and training of crop protectionist in g- eral and a concomitant impact on courses available at universities. However, it has never been more important to train people with good communication skills and an ability to solve problems to tackle the complexities of pathogen and plant interactions.

  • This collection of papers represents some of those given at the International Congress for Plant Pathology held in Turin in 2008 in the session with the title "The Role of Plant Pathology in Food Safety and Food Security". Although food safety in terms of "Is this food safe to eat?" did not receive much direct attention it is, never theless, an important topic. A crop may not be safe to eat because of its inh- ent qualities. Cassava, for example, is cyanogenic, and must be carefully prepared if toxicosis is to be avoided. Other crops may be safe to eat providing they are not infected or infested by microorganisms. Mycotoxins are notorious examples of compounds which may contaminate a crop either pre- or post-harvest owing to the growth of fungi. Two papers in this book deal with toxins, one by Barbara Howlett and co-workers and the other by Robert Proctor and co-workers. In the first of these, the role of sirodesmin PL, a compound produced by Leptosphaeria ma- lans, causal agent of blackleg disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus), is discussed. The authors conclude that the toxin plays a role in virulence of the fungus and may also be beneficial in protecting the pathogen from other competing micro-organisms but there seem to be no reports of its mammalian toxicity.

  • Plant disease management remains an important component of plant pathology and is more complex today than ever before including new innovation in diagnostic kits, the discovery of new modes of action of chemicals with low environmental impact, biological control agents with reliable and persistent activity, as well as the development of new plant varieties with durable disease resistance.

    This book is a collection of invited lectures given at the 9th International Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP 2008), held in Torino, August 24-29, 2008 and is part of a series of volumes on Plant Pathology in the 21st Century. It focuses on new developments of disease management and provides an updated overview of the state of the art given by world experts in the different fields of disease management. The different chapters deal with basic aspects of disease management, mechanisms of action of biological control agents, innovation in fungicide application, exploitation of natural compounds and resistance strategies. Moreover, the management of soil-borne diseases and disease management in organic farming are covered.

  • The International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM), established in 1962, is an intergovernmental organization of 13 countries: Albania, Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Italy, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia and Turkey. Four institutes (Bari, Italy; Chania, Greece; Montpellier, France; and Zaragoza, Spain) provide postgraduate education at the Master of Science level. CIHEAM promotes research networks on Mediterranean agricultural priorities, supports the organization of specialized education in member countries, holds seminars and workshops bringing together technologists and scientists involved in Mediterranean agriculture and regularly produces diverse publications including the series Options Méditerranéennes. Through these activities, CIHEAM promotes North/South dialogue and international co-operation for agricultural development in the Mediterranean region. Over the past decade, the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Zaragoza has developed a number of training and research-supporting activities in the field of agroecology and sustainability of agricultural production systems. Some of these activities have been concerned with the rational use of pesticides and more particularly with the implementation of integrated control systems in order to gain in efficacy and decrease both the environmental impact and the negative repercussions for the commercialization of agricultural products.

  • The book will address selected topics in postharvest pathology aiming at highlighting recent development in the science, technology and control strategies of postharvest diseases to reduce losses and enhance safety of harvested agricultural products. 

    Topics will include:

    1)      Introduction: Perspectives and challenges in postharvest pathology

    2)      Elucidating host-pathogen interactions

    3)      Next generation technologies for management and detection of postharvest pathogens

    4)      Food safety in postharvest pathology

    5)      Alternative postharvest diseases control strategies

    6)      Chemical control of postharvest diseases

  • Of the global population of more than 7 billion people, some 800 million do not have enough to eat today. By 2050, the population is expected to exceed 9 billion. It has been estimated that some 15% of food production is lost to plant diseases; in developing countries losses may be much higher.

    Historically, plant diseases have had catastrophic impact on food production. For example: potato blight caused the Irish famine in 1845; brown spot of rice caused the Great Bengal Famine of 1943; southern corn leaf blight caused a devastating epidemic on the US corn crop in 1970. Food security is threatened by an ongoing sequence of plant diseases, some persistent for decades or centuries, others more opportunistic. Wheat blast and banana xanthomonas wilt are two contrasting examples of many that currently threaten food production. Other emerging diseases will follow. The proposed title aims to provide a synthesis of expert knowledge to address this central challenge to food security for the 21st century.

    Chapters [5] and [11] are available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.

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