Ram Prasad

  • Bioremediation is the use of microorganisms' metabolism to degrade waste contaminants (sewage, domestic, and industrial effluents) into non-toxic or less toxic materials by natural biological processes. Remediation through fungi-or mycoremediation-has multifarious possibilities in applied remediation engineering and the future of environmental sustainability. Fungi have the biochemical and ecological capability to degrade environmental organic chemicals and to decrease the risk associated with metals, semi-metals, noble metals, and radionuclides, either by chemical modification or by manipulating chemical bioavailability. Additionally, the capability of these fungi to form extended mycelia networks, the low specificity of their catabolic enzymes, and their using pollutants as a growth substrate make these fungi well suited for bioremediation processes. Their mycelia exhibit the robustness of adapting to highly limiting environmental conditions often experienced in the presence of persistent pollutants, which makes them more useful compared to other microbes. However, despite dominating the living biomass in soil and being abundant in aquatic ecosystems, fungi have not been exploited for the bioremediation of such environments. This book covers the various types of fungi and associated fungal processes used to clean up waste and wastewaters in contaminated environments and discusses future potential applications.

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    Anglais Plant Nanobionics

    Ram Prasad

    An improved understanding of the interactions between nanoparticles and plant retorts, including their uptake, localization, and activity, could revolutionize crop production through increased disease resistance, nutrient utilization, and crop yield. This may further impact other agricultural and industrial processes that are based on plant crops.This two-volume book analyses the key processes involved in the nanoparticle delivery to plants and details the interactions between plants and nanomaterials. Potential plant nanotechnology applications for enhanced nutrient uptake, increased crop productivity and plant disease management are evaluated with careful consideration regarding safe use, social acceptance and ecological impact of these technologies.Plant Nanobionics: Volume 1, Advances in the Understanding of Nanomaterials Research and Applications begins the discussion of nanotechnology applications in plants with the characterization and nanosynthesis of various microbes and covers the mechanisms and etiology of nanostructure function in microbial cells. It focuses on the potential alteration of plant production systems through the controlled release of agrochemicals and targeted delivery of biomolecules. Industrial and medical applications are included. Volume 2 continues this discussion with a focus on biosynthesis and toxicity.

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    Anglais Microbial Nanobionics

    Ram Prasad

    Microbial Nanobionics: Volume 2, Basic Research Applications continues the important discussion of microbial nanoparticle synthesis with a focus on the mechanistic approach of biosynthesis towards nanobionics. This volume also explores the toxicity of nanomaterials in microbes and their effect on human health and the environment. Special Emphasis is given to the use of polymeric nanomaterials in smart packing for the food industry and agricultural sector. The future of nanomaterials for detection of soil microbes and their interactions and tools for environmental remedies is also comprehensively covered.
    The rich biodiversity of microbes make them excellent candidates for potential nanoparticle synthesis biofactories. Through a better understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of the microbial biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles, the rate of synthesis can be better developed and the monodispersity of the product can be enhanced. The characteristics of nanoparticles can be controlled via optimization of important parameters, such as temperature, pH, concentration and pressure, which  regulate microbe growth conditions and cellular and enzymatic activities. Large scale microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is a sustainable method due to the non-hazardous, non-toxic and economical nature of these processes.
    The applications of microbial synthesis of nanoparticles are wide and varied, spanning the industrial, biomedical and environmental fields. Biomedical applications include improved and more targeted antimicrobials, biosensing, imaging and drug delivery. In the environmental fields, nanoparticles are used for bioremediation of diverse contaminants, water treatment, catalysis and production of clean energy. With the expected growth of microbial nanotechnology, this volume will serve as a comprehensive and timely reference.

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  • Fungal Nanotechnology

    Ram Prasad

    • Springer
    • 25 Novembre 2017

    Fungal nanotechnology has great prospects for developing new products with industrial, agricultural, medicinal, and consumer applications in a wide range of sectors. The fields of chemical engineering, agri-food, biochemistry, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, and medical device development all employ fungal products, with fungal nanomaterials currently used in applications ranging from drug development to the food industry and agricultural biotechnology. Fungal agents are an environmentally friendly, clean, non-toxic agent for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles and employ both intracellular and extracellular methods. The simplicity of scaling up and downstream processing and the presence of fungal mycelia which afford an increased surface area provide key advantages. In addition, the large spectrum of synthesized nanoparticle morphologies and the substantially faster biosynthesis rate in cell-free filtrate (due to the higher amount of proteins secreted in fungi) make this a particularly enticing route. Understanding the diversity of fungi in assorted ecosystems, as well as their interactions with other microorganisms, animals, and plants, underpins real and innovative technological developments and the applications of metal nanoparticles in many disciplines including agriculture, catalysis, and biomedical biosensors. Importantly, biogenic fungal nanoparticles show significant synergistic characteristics when combined with antibiotics and fungicides to offer substantially greater resistance to microbial growth and applications in nanomedicine ranging from topical ointments and bandages for wound healing to coated stents.

  • ??Fungal nanobiotechnology has emerged as one of the key technologies, and an eco-friendly, as a source of food and harnessed to ferment and preserve foods and beverages, as well as applications in human health (antibiotics, anti-cholesterol statins, and immunosuppressive agents), while industry has used fungi for large-scale production of enzymes, acids, biosurfactants, and to manage fungal disease in crops and pest control. With the harnessing of nanotechnology, fungi have grown increasingly important by providing a greener alternative to chemically synthesized nanoparticles.

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    This book focuses on the application of nanotechnology in medicine and drug delivery, including diagnosis and therapy. Nanomedicine can contribute to the development of a personalized medicine both for diagnosis and therapy. By interacting with biological molecules at nanoscale level, nanotechnology opens up an immense field of research and applications. Interactions between artificial molecular assemblies or nanodevices and biomolecules can be understood both in the extracellular medium and inside human cells. Operating at nanoscale allows exploitation of physical properties different from those observed at microscale, such as the volume to surface area ratio.
    A number of clinical applications of nanobiotechnology, such as disease diagnosis, target-specific drug delivery, and molecular imaging are being investigated. Some promising new products are also undergoing clinical trials. Such advanced applications of this approach to biological systems will undoubtedly transform the foundations of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease in the future.
    Nanomedicine sales reached $16 billion in 2015, with a minimum of $3.8 billion in nanotechnology R&D being invested each year. Global funding for emerging nanotechnology increased by 45% per year in recent years, with product sales exceeding $1 trillion in 2013. As the nanomedicine industry continues to grow, it is expected to have a significant impact on the global economy.
    This book provides clear, colorful and simple illustrations, tables, and case studies to clearly convey the content to a general audience and reader. This book also discusses the development of nanobiomaterials from biogenic (biological sources) systems for healthcare and disease therapies. This book, therefore, is useful for researchers and academicians in the fields of nanotechnology, medicine, nano-biotechnology and pharmacology.

  • Nanotechnology can target specific agricultural problems related to plant pathology and provide new techniques for crop disease control. Plant breeders and phytopathologists are needed who can apply nanogenomics and develop nanodiagnostic technologies to accurately advance the improvement process and take advantage of the potential of genomics. This book serves as a thorough guide for researchers working with nanotechnology to address plant protection problems.
    Novel nanobiotechnology methods describe new plant gene transfer tools that improve crop resistance against plant diseases and increase food security. Also, quantum dots (QDs) have emerged as essential tools for fast and accurate detection of particular biological markers. Biosensors, QDs, nanostructured platforms, nanoimaging, and nanopore DNA sequencing tools have the potential to raise sensitivity, specificity, and speed in pathogen detection, thereby facilitating high-throughput analysis and providing high-quality monitoring and crop protection. Also, this book deals with the application of nanotechnology for quicker, more cost-effective, and precise diagnostic procedures of plant diseases and mycotoxins. Applications of nanotechnology in plant pests and disease control, antimicrobial mechanisms, pesticides remediation and nanotoxicity on plant ecosystem and soil microbial communities are discussed in detail. Moreover, the application of specific nanomaterials including silver, copper, carbon- or polymer-based nanomaterials and nanoemulsions are also discussed. Crops treated with safe nanofertilizers and nanopesticides will gain added value because they are free of chemical residues, decay and putative pathogens for human health, sustaining the global demand for high product quality. 

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    The establishment of clean, safe water is one of the major challenges facing societies around the globe. The continued urbanization of human populations, the increasing manipulation of natural resources, and the resulting pollution are driving remarkable burden on water resources. Increasing demands for food, energy, and natural resources are expected to continue to accelerate in the near future in response to the demands of these changing human populations. In addition, the complexity of human activities is leading to a diversity of new chemical contaminants in the environment that represent a major concern for water managers. This will create increased pressure on both water quantity and quality, making it increasingly dif?cult to provide a sustainable supply of water for human welfare and activities.

    Although protection of water resources is the best long-term solution, we will also need innovative novel approaches and technologies to water treatment to ensure an adequate superior quality resource to meet these needs. Solving tomorrow's water issues will require unique approaches that incorporate emerging new technologies.

    Great advances have been made in the area of nanotechnology. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, nanomaterials are extensively used in antibacterial medical products, membrane filters, electronics, catalysts, and biosensors. Nanoparticles can have distinctly different properties from their bulk counterparts, creating the opportunity for new materials with a diversity of applications. Recent developments related to water treatment include the potential use of carbon nanotubes, nanocompositae, nanospheres, nano?bers, and nanowires for the removal of a diversity of chemical pollutants. By exploiting the assets and structure of these new materials, such as increased surface area, high reactivity, and photocatalytic action, it will be possible to create technologies that can be very ef?cient at removing and degrading environmental pollutants. Understanding and using these unique properties should lead to innovative, cost-effective applications for addressing the complexities of emerging needs for water treatment and protection. Although still in the early stages, research into the application of nanotechnology shows great promise for solving some of these major global water issues. This comprehensive text describes the latest research and application methods in this rapidly advancing field.

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    Our Earth is considered as a natural system which organizes and controls itself.  However, the present scale of anthropogenic activity is unprecedented in the history of mankind compelling the intelligentia to ponder over the scientific causes of the problems, processes and sustainable and pragmatic solutions. The current rate of resource use and consumption pattern are depleting the planet's finite resources and damaging life-supporting ecosystems. A large number of toxic  substances are increasingly found in air, water, soil, and flora and fauna. We are in the midst of a period of increasing interconnected and complex global challenges that seek action across temporal and spatial scales, diverse sectors, and concerted efforts from global citizens. The environment on account of human's action has been experiencing imbalances and ecological catastrophe. Environmental issues like global climate change, biodiversity loss, the rapid depletion of natural resources, degradation of global commons, stratospheric ozone depletion have been restricting the safe operating space and transgressing the planetary boundaries endangering the existence of human societies. The global environmental problems if not scientifically managed may end up in the civilizational collapse. Nevertheless, the underlying commonality among these environmental issues is interrelatedness, complexity, and difficulty in identifying and implementing solutions. The global environmental challenges can be managed by adopting sustainable green technologies which dovetails the principles of environmental sustainability with social and ecological sustainability. Green growth is construed as a new development paradigm that sustains economic growth while at the same time ensuring environmental sustainability.

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    The book `Root Biology' written by experts in the field, covers latest research on cellular, genetic, physiological and ecological developmental facets of root growth as well as the interaction of root with an array of microbes whether for the establishment of symbiosis, increasing plant growth or protecting plant from pathogens/attackers. 
    Plant roots provide an excellent model to study physiological, developmental and metabolic processes at a system level. Root system architecture - an excellent creation of nature, is closely interconnected with the availability of soil nutrients. Several strategies including biotechnological interventions are gaining interest and importance for sustainable food production and enhanced resource acquisition. Such strategies have largely focused on root traits for efficient utilization of soil resources. The biotechnological application of root biology is expected to promote the production of food while maintaining ecologically and economically sustainable production systems.
    With a fortune of information on technical and experimental aspects useful in the laboratory, this extensive book is a valuable resource for researchers, academician and students in the broad field of microbiology, plant and fungal biology.

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    Global climate change threatens human existence through its potential impact on agriculture and the environment. Agriculture is climate-sensitive, and climate variability and climate change have net negative impact on it. Additionally, the agricultural landscape is affected by monoculture and agro-biodiversity loss, soil fertility depletion and soil loss, competition from biofuel production, crop yield plateaus and invasive species. Nevertheless, the global agricultural production system has to meet the food demands from the growing human population, which is set to exceed 10 billion by 2050.

    This book discusses the impacts of climate change on agriculture, animal husbandry and rural livelihoods. Further, since agriculture, forestry and other land-use sectors contribute about 10-12 gigatonnes of CO2-equivalent per year, it argues that agricultural policy must dovetail adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce greenhouse gases emissions. This calls for a reformative and disruptive agricultural strategy like climate-smart agriculture, which can operate at all spatio-temporal scales with few modifications. The book also redefines sustainable agriculture through the lens of climate-smart agriculture in the context of the sustainability of Earth's life- support system and inter- and intra-generational equity. The climate-smart agriculture approach is gaining currency thanks to its inherent positive potential, and its goal to establish an agricultural system which includes "climate-smart food systems", "climate-proof farms", and "climate-smart soils". Climate-smart agriculture provides a pathway to achieve sustainable development goals which focus on poverty reduction, food security, and environmental health. 

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    Bioremediation refers to the clean-up of pollution in soil, groundwater, surface water, and air using typically microbiological processes. It uses naturally occurring bacteria and fungi or plants to degrade, transform or detoxify hazardous substances to human health or the environment.For bioremediation to be effective, microorganisms must enzymatically attack the pollutants and convert them to harmless products. As bioremediation can be effective only where environmental conditions permit microbial growth and action, its application often involves the management of ecological factors to allow microbial growth and degradation to continue at a faster rate. Like other technologies, bioremediation has its limitations. Some contaminants, such as chlorinated organic or high aromatic hydrocarbons, are resistant to microbial attack. They are degraded either gradually or not at all, hence, it is not easy to envisage the rates of clean-up for bioremediation implementation.Bioremediation represents a field of great expansion due to the important development of new technologies. Among them, several decades on metagenomics expansion has led to the detection of autochthonous microbiota that plays a key role during transformation. Transcriptomic guides us to know the expression of key genes and proteomics allow the characterization of proteins that conduct specific reactions.  In this book we show specific technologies applied in bioremediation of main interest for research in the field, with special attention on fungi, which have been poorly studied microorganisms. Finally, new approaches in the field, such as CRISPR-CAS9, are also discussed. Lastly, it introduces management strategies, such as bioremediation application for managing affected environment and bioremediation approaches. Examples of successful bioremediation applications are illustrated in radionuclide entrapment and retardation, soil stabilization and remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, plastics or fluorinated compounds. Other emerging bioremediation methods include electro bioremediation, microbe-availed phytoremediation, genetic recombinant technologies in enhancing plants in accumulation of inorganic metals, and metalloids as well as degradation of organic pollutants, protein-metabolic engineering to increase bioremediation efficiency, including nanotechnology applications are also discussed.    

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    With the recent shift of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to organic agriculture, the employment of microbes that perform significant beneficial functions for plants has been highlighted. This book presents timely discussion and coverage on the use of microbial formulations, which range from powdered or charcoal-based to solution and secondary metabolite-based bioformulations. Bioformulation development of biofertilizers and biopesticides coupled with the advantages of nanobiotechnology propose significant applications in the agricultural section including nanobiosensors, nanoherbicides, and smart transport systems for the regulated release of agrochemical. Moreover, the formulation of secondary metabolites against individual phytopathogens could be used irrespective of geographical positions with higher disease incidences. The prospective advantages and uses of nanobiotechnology generate tremendous interest, as it could augment production of agricultural produce while being cost-effective both energetically and economically. This bioformulation approach is incomparable to existing technology, as the bioformulation would explicitly target the particular pathogen without harming the natural microbiome of the ecosystem.
    Nanobiotechnology in Bioformulations covers the constraints associated with large-scale development and commercialization of bioinoculant formations. Furthermore, exclusive emphasis is be placed on next-generation efficient bioinoculants having secondary metabolite formulations with longer shelf life and advanced competence against several phytopathogens. Valuable chapters deal with bioformulation strategies that use divergent groups of the microbiome and include detailed diagrammatic and pictorial representation. This book will be highly beneficial for both experts and novices in the fields of microbial bioformulation, nanotechnology, and nano-microbiotechnology. It discusses the prevailing status and applications available for microbial researchers and scientists, agronomists, students, environmentalists, agriculturists, and agribusiness professionals, as well as to anyone devoted to sustaining the ecosystem.

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    This book shares the latest insights into the genetic basis of molecular communication between plants and their microbial consortia. Further, the book highlights the capabilities of the rhizosphere and endosphere, which help manage ecosystem responses to climate change, nutrient cycling and sequestration of carbon; and discusses their application to the development and management of renewable energy sources.In their natural environments, plants are surrounded by a tremendous number of microorganisms. Some microbes directly interact with plants in a mutually beneficial fashion, while others colonize plants solely for their own advantage. In addition, microbes can indirectly affect plants by drastically altering their environments. Understanding the complex nature of the plant-microbe interface (PMI) can pave the way for novel strategies to improve plant productivity in an eco-friendly manner.
    The PMI approach focuses on understanding the physical, molecular, and chemical interactions between organisms in order to determine their functional roles in biological, physical, chemical and environmental systems. Although several metabolites from plants and microbes have now been fully characterized, their roles in chemical interactions between these associates remain poorly understood, and require further investigation.

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    Nanotechnology progresses its concerts and suitability by improving its effectiveness, security and also reducing the impact and risk. Various chapters in this book are written by eminent scientists and prominent researchers in the field of nanotechnology across the world. This book is focused to put emerging techniques forward using nanoparticles for safe and nutritional food production, protecting crops from pests, increasing nutritional value and providing solutions for various environmental issues. The outcome of this book creates a path for wide usage of nanoparticles in food, agriculture and the environment fields.  
    This book has clear and simple illustrations, tables and case studies to understand the content even by non-experts. This book especially deals with the nanotechnology for controlling plant pathogens, food packaging and preservation, agricultural productivity, waste water treatment and bioenergy production. Hence, this book can be adopted and used by many researchers and academicians in the fields of food, agriculture, environment and nanotechnology for catering the needs of sustainable future. The salient features of this book are 
    o Describes nanotechnology as an interdisciplinary and emerging field in life scienceso Useful for researchers in the cutting edge life science related fields of nanoscience, nanobiology and nanotechnologyo Deal with various problems in food, agriculture and environmental sector for sustainable solutions through the application of nanotechnologyo Supported with illustrations in color, tables and case studies (wherever applicable), and o Contributed and well written by nanotechnology experts from across various disciplines

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    This book provides an overview of the latest advances concerning symbiotic relationships between plants and microbes, and their applications in plant productivity and agricultural sustainability.

    Symbiosis is a living phenomenon including dynamic variations in the genome, metabolism and signaling network, and adopting a multidirectional perspective on their interactions is required when studying symbiotic organisms.

    Although various plant-microbe symbiotic systems are covered in this book, it especially focuses on arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis and root nodule symbiosis, the two most prevalent systems. AM symbiosis involves the most extensive interaction between plants and microbes, in the context of phylogeny and ecology. As more than 90% of all known species of plants have the potential to form mycorrhizal associations, the productivity and species composition, as well as the diversity of natural ecosystems, are frequently dependent upon the presence and activity of mycorrhizas.

    In turn, root nodule symbiosis includes morphogenesis and is formed by communication between plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The biotechnological application of plant-microbe symbiosis is expected to foster the production of agricultural and horticultural products while maintaining ecologically and economically sustainable production systems.

    Designed as a hands-on guide, this book offers an essential resource for researchers and students in the areas of agri-biotechnology, soil biology and fungal biology.

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    In the pursuit of technological advancement in the field of biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries to counteract health issues, bacterial infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The ability of bacterial pathogens to form biofilms further agglomerates the situation by showing resistance to conventional antibiotics. To overcome this serious issue, bioactive metabolites and other natural products were exploited to combat bacterial infections and biofilm-related health consequences. Natural products exhibited promising results in vitro, however; their efficacy in in vivo conditions remain obscured due to their low-solubility, bioavailability, and biocompatibility issues. In this scenario, nanotechnological interventions provide a multifaceted platform for targeted delivery of bioactive compounds by slow and sustained release of drug-like compounds. The unique physico-chemical properties, biocompatibility and eco-friendly nature of bioinspired nanostructures has revolutionized the field of biology to eradicate microbial infections and biofilm-related complications. The green-nanotechnology based metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and polymeric nanoparticles have been regularly employed for antimicrobial and antibiofilm applications without causing damage to host tissues. The implications of these nanoparticles toward achieving sustainability in agriculture by providing systemic resistance against a variety of phytopathogens therefore plays crucial role in growth and crop productivity. Also the advent of smart and hybrid nanomaterials such as metal-based polymer nanocomposites, lipid-based nanomaterials and liposomes have the inherent potential to eradicate bacterial biofilm-related infections in an efficient manner. The recent development of carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silica based nanomaterials such as mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) also exploit a target of dreadful healthcare conditions such as cancer, immunomodulatory diseases, and microbial infections, as well as biofilm-related issues owing to their stability profile, biocompatibility, and unique physio-chemical properties. Recently novel physical approaches such as photothermal therapy (PTT) and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) also revolutionized conventional strategies and are engaged in eradicating microbial biofilm-related infections and related health consequences. These promising advancements in the development of novel strategies to treat microbial infections and biofilm-related multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon may provide new avenues and aid to conventional antimicrobial therapeutics.

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    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge on plant-microbiome interactions and associations. It covers all major mechanistic approaches used to investigate microbes' impacts on plant growth promotion, disease control and health.
    The industrial manufacture of nitrogen currently accounts for roughly 2% of the world's total energy consumption. Microbial products are expected to reduce the need for costly fertilizers, as well as chemical pesticides and fungicides. While beneficial microorganisms are increasingly being used in agriculture, abiotic and biotic stresses such as heat, drought, cold, and salt can quickly kill or render them useless in the field. However, discovering new and better treatments is a lengthy process due to the considerable microbial diversity found in soils.
    Researchers have now proposed using biotechnological approaches to accelerate the process of microbial technology development. The fact that plant-associated microbes stimulate plant growth and development is well known, as the examples of rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi show. The mechanisms by which these microorganisms maintain plant growth include the production of phytohormones, fixation of nitrogen, and the mobilization of phosphorus and minerals. The plant microbiome is also involved in pathogen suppression, and especially the root microbiome acts as a protective shield against soil-borne pathogens.
    A special feature of this book is its multidisciplinary approach, spanning from plant microbiology/biocontrol, fungal and bacterial endophytes, plant physiology, to biochemistry, proteomics and genomics. It is ideally suited for researchers and student of agri-biotechnology, soil biology and fungal biology.

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    This book addresses "phyto-microbiome mediated stress regulation". Fundamentally speaking, the microbial community's importance for the survival of plants under stress conditions has already been confirmed. This book focuses on the roles of those rhizospheric microbiomes that are advantageous to plant developmental pathways. Gathering contributions by authors with specialized expertise in plant growth and health under stress conditions, as well as opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, the book reviews the functional aspects of rhizospheric microorganisms and how they impact plant health and disease. It offers a compendium of plant and microbial interactions at the level of multitrophic interactions, and identifies gaps between future demand and present research on plant stress. In closing, the authors highlight several directions for reshaping rhizosphere microbiomes in favor of microorganisms that are beneficial to plant growth and health. 

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    M?icrobial biotechnology is an important area that promotes advanced research into using microbes for value-added products, human nutrition, and the overall wellbeing of society. This book presents the latest information on the use of microbes for sustainable development, and highlights state-of-the-art biotechnological techniques used to harness microbial biotechnological traits on a commercial scale. Gathering contributions from authoritative researchers in the field, it addresses recent advances in microbial biotechnological approaches that offer sustainable options for future generations.

     Exploring a broad range of microbial products and their uses, the book specifically places emphasis on the application of microorganisms in healthcare, the environment and industry. It also discusses various compound classes derived from microbial metabolites. Pursuing a holistic approach to recent advances in the utilization of various microbes as biotechnological tools, the book also covers traditional uses, and explores emerging strategies to harness their full potential. Accordingly, it offers a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students alike.

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    This book highlights recent advances in the field of plant-biotic interactions and explores current serious issues in the crop production industry. It is intended to attract more attention to these important, but often overlooked areas, and to stimulate new ideas for future research.

    Plants are constantly under attack by pathogens, pests, and parasites, which can significantly impact worldwide food production and human health. While pathogens and pests attack and interconnect with their hosts in a variety of ways, plants have developed sophisticated immune systems to fight infections. In the field of plant-biotic interactions, most of the studies to date have focused on the function and signaling pathways of plant disease resistance proteins and pattern recognition receptors, as well as pathogen effector proteins. 
    In contrast, this book presents new and emerging research areas, and introduces students, researchers, academics, and policy advisors to the latest trends in e.g. microbial technology, environmental microbiology, agricultural science, the health sciences, biological sciences and other related disciplines.

  • Tailoring of biomolecules using protein engineering technology, and host cells culture techniques are among the most sophisticated and elegant achievements of modern applied life sciences in which the basic fundamentals biotechnology are applicable for the development and manufacturing of biologics and other related bio-molecules for a hurdle free life with good health. A majority of biologics derived from genetically modified host cells in the current market are bio-formulation such as antibodies, nucleic acid products and vaccines. Such bio-formulations are developed mainly in two steps i.e. upstream process and downstream process. The first volume of this series begins with the latest information on how the classical stepwise host cells culture (mammals, animals, plants, and bacteria) methodology has been changed to fully continuous or partially continuous host cells culture process in order to economise the biopharmaceutical products manufacturing process. In addition this volume narrates a brief history on conceptual development of new thoughts in designing biotechnology industries for commercial production of variety of therapeutic proteins with structural modification on the basis of clinical requirements. The readers will feel exited by going through the latest discovery and development in applied life sciences for designing innovative biomolecules for health care with utmost safe. The most interesting part of this volume is newly developed concept on bioprinting. It explains how to design and fabricate animate objects by fusing or depositing material of interest in the form of powders, solid dusts, metal, liquid or even living cells or tissues by layers to produce 3D objectives.  The first volume ends with the latest information on the current trend in biologics market, market dynamic, drives, and opportunities with challenges.

  • This is the fourth updated and revised edition of a well-received book that emphasises on fungal diversity, plant productivity and sustainability. It contains new chapters written by leading experts in the field.
    This book is an up-to-date overview of current progress in mycorrhiza and association with plant productivity and environmental sustainability. The result is a must hands-on guide, ideally suited for agri-biotechnology, soil biology, fungal biology including mycorrrhiza and stress management, academia and researchers.
    The topic of this book is particularly relevant to researchers involved in mycorrhiza, especially to food security, plant microbe interaction  and environmental protection.
    Mycorrhizas are symbioses between fungi and the roots of higher plants. As more than 90% of all known species of plants have the potential to form mycorrhizal associations, the productivity and species composition and the diversity of natural ecosystems are frequently dependent upon the presence and activity of mycorrhizas. The biotechnological application of mycorrhizas is expected to promote the production of food while maintaining ecologically and economically sustainable production systems.

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