This volume provides a detailed description of some of the most active areas in astrophysics from the largest scales probed by the Planck satellite to massive black holes that lie at the heart of galaxies and up to the much awaited but stunning discovery of thousands of exoplanets. It contains the following chapters:
o Jean-Philippe UZAN, The Big-Bang Theory: Construction, Evolution and Status
o Jean-Loup PUGET, The Planck Mission and the Cosmic Microwave Background
o Reinhard GENZEL, Massive Black Holes: Evidence, Demographics and Cosmic Evolution
o Arnaud CASSAN, New Worlds Ahead: The Discovery of Exoplanets
Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez shared the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy'", alongside Roger Penrose "for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity". The book corresponds to the twentieth Poincaré Seminar, held on November 21, 2015, at Institut Henri Poincaré in Paris.
Originally written as lectures to a broad scientific audience, these four chapters are of high value and will be of general interest to astrophysicists, physicists, mathematicians and historians.
La justice internationale perd toute crédibilité si les Etats puissants continuent à bénéficier d'une totale impunité. Le cas des Etats-Unis est emblématique : politique d'agression, traitements inhumains, détentions illégales, autant de "crimes internationaux" dont les responsables devraient être poursuivis selon la charte de l'ONU et les Conventions de Genève. Voici le constat accablant des faits d'Hiroshima à nos jours, les valeurs à défendre et les actions à mener pour que l'humanité l'emporte sur la barbarie.
This volume provides a detailed description of the seminal theoretical construction in 1964, independently by Robert Brout and Francois Englert, and by Peter W. Higgs, of a mechanism for short-range fundamental interactions, now called the Brout-Englert-Higgs (BEH) mechanism. It accounts for the non-zero mass of elementary particles and predicts the existence of a new particle - an elementary massive scalar boson. In addition to this the book describes the experimental discovery of this fundamental missing element in the Standard Model of particle physics. The H Boson, also called the Higgs Boson, was produced and detected in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN near Geneva by two large experimental collaborations, ATLAS and CMS, which announced its discovery on the 4th of July 2012.This new volume of the Poincaré Seminar Series, The H Boson, corresponds to the nineteenth seminar, held on November 29, 2014, at Institut Henri Poincaré in Paris.
This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantummechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a formof carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other materials than graphene, collectively known as "Dirac matter", and offer a thorough description of the merging transition of Dirac cones that occurs in the energy spectrum, in various experiments involving stretching of the microscopic hexagonal lattice; the third contribution, entitled "Quantum Transport in Graphene: Impurity Scattering as a Probe of the DiracSpectrum", given by Hélène Bouchiat, a leading experimentalist in mesoscopic physics, with Sophie Guéron and Chuan Li, shows how measuring electrical transport, in particular magneto-transport in real graphene devices - contaminated by impurities and hence exhibiting a diffusive regime - allows one to deeply probe the Dirac nature of electrons. The last two contributions focus on topological insulators; in the authoritative "Experimental Signatures of Topological Insulators", Laurent Lévy reviews recent experimental progress in the physics of mercury-telluride samples under strain, which demonstrates that the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator hosts a two-dimensional massless Dirac metal; the illuminating final contribution by David Carpentier, entitled "Topology of Bands in Solids: From Insulators to Dirac Matter", provides a geometric description of Bloch wave functions in terms of Berry phases and parallel transport, and of their topological classification in terms of invariants such as Chern numbers, and ends with a perspective on three-dimensional semi-metals as described by the Weyl equation. This book will be of broad general interest to physicists, mathematicians, and historians of science.
This book is the fourth in a series of lectures of the S´ eminaire Poincar´ e,whichis directed towards a large audience of physicists and of mathematicians. The goal of this seminar is to provide up-to-date information about general topics of great interest in physics. Both the theoretical and experimental aspects are covered, with some historical background. Inspired by the Bourbaki seminar in mathematics in its organization, hence nicknamed "Bourbaphi", the Poincar´ e Seminar is held twice a year at the Institut Henri Poincar´ e in Paris, with cont- butions prepared in advance. Particular care is devoted to the pedagogical nature of the presentations so as to ful?ll the goal of being readable by a large audience of scientists. This volume contains the seventh such Seminar, held in 2005. It is devoted to Einstein's 1905 papers and their legacy. After a presentation of Einstein's ep- temological approach to physics, and the genesis of special relativity, a cen- nary perspective is o?ered. The geometry of relativistic spacetime is explained in detail. Single photon experiments are presented, as a spectacular realization of Einstein's light quanta hypothesis. A previously unpublished lecture by Einstein, which presents an illuminating point of view on statistical physics in 1910, at the dawn of quantum mechanics, is reproduced. The volume ends with an essay on the historical, physical and mathematical aspects of Brownian motion. We hopethatthe publicationofthis serieswill servethe community ofphy- cists and mathematicians at the graduate student or professional level.
This volume is devoted to Quantum Decoherence with lectures from the Séminaire Poincaré, held in November 2005 at the Institute Henri Poincaré Paris. The goal of this seminar is to provide up-to-date information about general topics of great interest in physics. Both the theoretical and experimental results are covered, with some historical background. Particular care is devoted to the pedagogical nature of the presentation.
This fourteenth volume in the Poincaré Seminar Series is devoted to Niels Bohr, his foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory and their continuing importance today. This book contains the following chapters: - Tomas Bohr, Keeping Things Open; - Olivier Darrigol, Bohr's Trilogy of 1913; -John Heilbron, The Mind that Created the Bohr Atom; - Serge Haroche & Jean-Michel Raimond, Bohr's Legacy in Cavity QED; - Alain Aspect, From Einstein, Bohr, Schrdinger to Bell and Feynman: a New Quantum Revolution?; - Antoine Browaeys, Interacting Cold Rydberg Atoms: A Toy Many-Body System; - Michel Bitbol & Stefano Osnaghi, Bohr´s Complementarity and Kant´s Epistemology. Dating from their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience these seven chapters are of high educational value.
This volume is of general interest to physicists, mathematicians and historians.
This eighteenth volume in the Poincaré Seminar Series provides a thorough description of Information Theory and some of its most active areas, in particular, its relation to thermodynamics at the nanoscale and the Maxwell Demon, and the emergence of quantum computation and of its counterpart, quantum verification. It also includes two introductory tutorials, one on the fundamental relation between thermodynamics and information theory, and a primer on Shannon's entropy and information theory. The book offers a unique and manifold perspective on recent mathematical and physical developments in this field.