Vivek Kumar

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    With the recent shift of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to organic agriculture, the employment of microbes that perform significant beneficial functions for plants has been highlighted. This book presents timely discussion and coverage on the use of microbial formulations, which range from powdered or charcoal-based to solution and secondary metabolite-based bioformulations. Bioformulation development of biofertilizers and biopesticides coupled with the advantages of nanobiotechnology propose significant applications in the agricultural section including nanobiosensors, nanoherbicides, and smart transport systems for the regulated release of agrochemical. Moreover, the formulation of secondary metabolites against individual phytopathogens could be used irrespective of geographical positions with higher disease incidences. The prospective advantages and uses of nanobiotechnology generate tremendous interest, as it could augment production of agricultural produce while being cost-effective both energetically and economically. This bioformulation approach is incomparable to existing technology, as the bioformulation would explicitly target the particular pathogen without harming the natural microbiome of the ecosystem.
    Nanobiotechnology in Bioformulations covers the constraints associated with large-scale development and commercialization of bioinoculant formations. Furthermore, exclusive emphasis is be placed on next-generation efficient bioinoculants having secondary metabolite formulations with longer shelf life and advanced competence against several phytopathogens. Valuable chapters deal with bioformulation strategies that use divergent groups of the microbiome and include detailed diagrammatic and pictorial representation. This book will be highly beneficial for both experts and novices in the fields of microbial bioformulation, nanotechnology, and nano-microbiotechnology. It discusses the prevailing status and applications available for microbial researchers and scientists, agronomists, students, environmentalists, agriculturists, and agribusiness professionals, as well as to anyone devoted to sustaining the ecosystem.

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    This book discusses the role of salt in current agricultural approaches, including the low salt tolerance of agricultural crops and trees, impact of saline soils, and salt-resistant plants. Halophytes are extremely salt tolerant plants, which are able to grow and survive under salt at concentrations as high as 5 g/l by maintaining negative water potential. The salt-tolerant microbes inhabiting the rhizospheres of halophytes may contribute to their salt tolerance, and the rhizospheres of halophytic plants provide an ideal opportunity for isolating various groups of salt-tolerant microbes that could enhance the growth of different crops under salinity stress. 
    The book offers an overview of salt-tolerant microbes' ability to increase plant tolerance to salt to facilitate plant growth, the potential of the halophytes' rhizospheres as a reservoir of beneficial salt-tolerant microbes, their future application as bio-inoculants in agriculture and a valuable resource for an alternative way of improving crop tolerance to salinity and promoting saline soil-based agriculture. This special collection of reviews highlights some of the recent advances in applied aspects of plant (halophytes)-microbe interactions and their contribution towards eco-friendly approaches saline soil-based agriculture.

  • This book focuses on food security in sustainable agriculture and nutrient management. The study of plant probiotic microbes' synergism using existing techniques has greatly improved our grasp of the structure and functioning of the plant microbiome. However, the function of plant probiotic microbes and their relation to plants' health in the context of food security, soil nutrient management, human and plant health are largely unexplored. Compared to human probiotics, diverse types and millions of microbiota inhabit plants, forming multifaceted and complicated ecological societies that stimulate plant growth and health through their combined metabolic activities. From the perspective of sustainable cropping systems, observing plant probiotics can provide insights on how to stimulate and maintain plant productivity, along with host stress tolerance and recycling of soil nutrients. This book combines reviews and original research articles to highlight the latest advances in plant probiotics, their specificity, diversity, function, as well as plant microbiome management to improve plant growth and productivity, nutrient management and human health.

  • This book explores various nanotechnology applications and their effect on the food industry, innovation and environmental issues. Nanotechnology has had a major impact on the food industry and the environment in recent years - it has increased the nutritional and functional properties of a number of food products, food packaging, food quality, crop protection, plant nutrient management and aided the food industry through the introduction of food diagnostics.

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  • Fungal nanobionics has great prospects for developing new products with industrial, agriculture, medicine and consumer applications in a wide range of sectors. The fields of chemical engineering, agri-food, biochemical, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics and medical device development all employ fungal products, with fungal nanomaterials currently used in a wide range of applications, ranging from drug development to food industry and agricultural sector. The fungal agents emerge as an environmentally friendly, clean, non-toxic agent for the biogenic metal nanoparticles and employs both intracellular and extracellular methods. The simplicity of scaling up and downstream processing and the presence of fungal mycelia affording an increased surface area provide key advantages. In addition, the larger spectrum of synthesized nanoparticle morphologies and the substantially faster biosynthesis rate in cell-free filtrate (due to the higher amount of proteins secreted in fungi) make this a particularly enticing route. Understanding the diversity of fungi in assorted ecosystems, as well as their interactions with other microorganisms, animals and plants, is essential to underpin real and innovative technological developments and the applications of metal nanoparticles in many disciplines including agriculture, catalysis, and biomedical biosensors. Importantly, biogenic fungal nanoparticles show significant synergistic characteristics when combined with antibiotics and fungicides to offer substantially greater resistance to microbial growth and applications in nanomedicine ranging from topical ointments and bandages for wound healing to coated stents.

  • This book primarily focuses on microbial colonization, its role in plant growth and nutrient cycling, mycorrhizae, and providing an overview of phytospheric microorganisms in sustainable crop systems. Despite the advances made in the study of plant-microbe synergism, the relation between microbes and plant health in the context of food security, soil nutrient management, human and plant health is still largely unexplored. Addressing that gap, the book presents reviews and original research articles that highlight the latest discoveries in plant probiotics, their specificity, diversity and function. Additional sections addressing nutrient management, human health, and plant microbiome management to improve plant productivity round out the coverage.

  • This book provides systematic information on the lychee and modern tools to promote its sustainable growth and development. Including dedicated chapters on the evolution and diversification of the lychee, it highlights its genetic makeup and reciprocal exogenous factors, addressing the narrow genetic pool and lack of natural biodiversity. It also discusses issues related to post-harvest losses and robust approaches at the commercial level. Further, the book offers insights on in vitro propagation methods and prospective transgenic approaches for selected lychee cultivars. Chapters on the production of bioactive compounds and their enhancement through genetic transformation and elicitation are also included, reflecting the latest advances in the field of lychee biotechnology. Lastly, the book explores the use of molecular marker techniques to achieve the desired improvements in fruit trees' medicinal and aesthetic value.

  • The book discusses ways to overcome the side effects of using hydrocarbon-based products as energy sources. Hydrocarbons produce raw crude oil waste of around 600,000 metric tons per annum, with a range of uncertainty of 200,000 metric tons per year. The various chapters in this book focus on approaches to reduce these wastes through the application of potential microbes, in a process called bioremediation. The book is a one-stop reference resource on the methods, mechanisms and application of the bio-composites, in the laboratory and field. Focusing on resolving a very pressing environmental issue, it not only provides details of existing challenges, but also offers deeper insights into the possibility of solving problems using hydrocarbon bioremediation.

  • This book offers a comprehensive compilation of biotic and abiotic factors that affect lychee production and commercialization. It addresses disease management for a range of causal agents, including the leaf mite (Acerya litchi Keifer), leaf miner (Conopomorpha cramerella), fruit borers (Conopomorpha cramerella, Platypeplus aprobola Meyer and Dichocrosis sp.), leaf webber / roller (Platypepla aprobola Meyer), litchi bug (Tessarotoma javanica Thunb), bark-eating caterpillar (Indarbela quadrinotata) and shoot borer (Chlumetia transversa), etc.Specialized chapters highlight potential approaches to optimizing and increasing the scope of lychee export, as well as systematic research on the development and refinement of technologies for enhancing lychee productivity and quality. Further aspects addressed include post-harvest handling, processing and value addition, the development of tolerant varieties, high yield and processing. As such, `Lychee Disease Management' offers a valuable resource dedicated to the global agriculture community, which is currently facing considerable production and commercialization problems.

  • This book explores the role of in silico deployment in connection with modulation techniques for improving sustainability and competitiveness in the agri-food sector; pharmacokinetics and molecular docking studies of plant-derived natural compounds; and their potential anti-neurodegenerative activity. It also investigates biochemical pathways for bacterial metabolite synthesis, fungal diversity and plant-fungi interaction in plant diseases, methods for predicting disease-resistant candidate genes in plants, and genes-to-metabolites and metabolites-to-genes approaches for predicting biosynthetic pathways in microbes for natural product discovery.  The respective chapters elaborate on the use of in situ methods to study biochemical pathways for bacterial metabolite synthesis; tools for plant metabolites in defence; plant secondary metabolites in defence; plant growth metabolites; characterisation of plant metabolites; and identification of plant derived metabolites in the context of plant defence. 
    The book offers an unprecedented resource, highlighting state-of-the-art research work that will greatly benefit researchers and students alike, not only in the field of agriculture but also in many disciplines in the life sciences and plant sciences.

  • This book describes the vast variety of xenobiotics, such as pesticides, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, agrochemicals and other pollutants, their interactions with the soil environment, and the currently available strategies and techniques for soil decontamination and bioremediation. Topics covered include: transport mechanisms of pollutants along the Himalayas; use of earthworms in biomonitoring; metagenomic strategies for assessing contaminated sites; xenobiotics in the food chain; phyto-chemical remediation; biodegradation by fungi; and the use of enzymes and potential microbes in biotransformation. Accordingly, the book offers a valuable guide for scientists in the fields of environmental ecology, soil and food sciences, agriculture, and applied microbiology.

  • This book offers present-day retrospectives and future perspectives on `phytobiont' studies in the context of phyto-micro restitution, filling some of the information gaps in this promising research field. It discusses several ecosystem restitution strategies using dissimilar groups of microbes alone or in association with plants, as well as advances in metagenomics technology for studying in situ micro and macro communities in contaminated soil. It addresses topics such as the status quo, and the perspectives of microbial researchers and scientists, foresters, students, environmentalists, agriculturists and professional engineers. The rising pollution levels caused by xenobiotics is one of the biggest problems of our times, and as such the book comprehensively elaborates the latest research in this field and describes how the issue can be tackled using micro-organisms.  With detailed diagrams and illustrations, the book is a valuable resource for experts and novices in the field of microbial bioremediation, phyto-bioremediation and environmental microbiology 

  • This book focuses on the application of microorganisms in various aspects of life such as plant protection and improvement, environmental remediation, and the improvement of plant & human health. Various applications of microorganisms are examined in depth, e.g. applied microbiology in agriculture, microbes in the environment, the development of new microbial enzymes, and microbes in human health. In turn, the book shares insights into the diverse microorganisms that have been explored and exploited in the development of various applications for agricultural improvements. It also discusses the detection and exploitation of microorganisms in the diagnosis of human diseases, which offer potential holistic approaches to health. Presenting the latest information and findings on the applications of microbial biotechnology, the book offers a valuable resource.

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    Nanotechnology is considered as one of the emerging fields of science. It has applications in different biological and technological fields which deal with the science of materials at nanoscale (10-9). On the other hand, biotechnology is another field that deals with contemporary challenges. Nanobiotechnology fills the gap between these two fields. It merges physical, chemical, and biological principles in a single realm. This combination opens up new possibilities. At nanoscale dimensions, it creates precise nanocrystals and nanoshells. Integrated nanomaterials are used with modified surface layers for compatibility with living systems, improved dissolution in water, or biorecognition leading to enhanced end results in biotechnological systems. These nanoparticles can also be hybridized with additional biocompatible substances in order to amend their qualities to inculcate novel utilities. Nanobiotechnology is used in bioconjugate chemistry by coalescing up the functionality of non-organically obtained molecular components and biological molecules in order to veil the immunogenic moieties for targeted drug delivery, bioimaging and biosensing.

     

    This book blends the science of biology, medicine, bioinorganic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, material and physical sciences, biomedical engineering, electrical, mechanical, and chemical science to present a comprehensive range of advancements. The development of nano-based materials has made for a greater understanding of their characterization, using techniques such as transmission electron microscope, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope EDX, and so on. This volume also highlights uses in environmental remediation, environmental biosensors and environmental protection. It also emphasizes the significance of nanobiotechnology to a series of medical applications viz., diagnostics, and therapeutics stem cell technology, tissue engineering enzyme engineering, drug development and delivery. In addition this book also offers a distinctive understanding of nanobiotechnology from researchers and educators and gives a comprehensive facility for future developments and current applications of nanobiotechnology.

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    This book addresses "phyto-microbiome mediated stress regulation". Fundamentally speaking, the microbial community's importance for the survival of plants under stress conditions has already been confirmed. This book focuses on the roles of those rhizospheric microbiomes that are advantageous to plant developmental pathways. Gathering contributions by authors with specialized expertise in plant growth and health under stress conditions, as well as opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, the book reviews the functional aspects of rhizospheric microorganisms and how they impact plant health and disease. It offers a compendium of plant and microbial interactions at the level of multitrophic interactions, and identifies gaps between future demand and present research on plant stress. In closing, the authors highlight several directions for reshaping rhizosphere microbiomes in favor of microorganisms that are beneficial to plant growth and health. 

  • The book discusses the complex interactions between plants and their associated microbial communities. It also elucidates the ways in which these microbiomes are connected with the plant system, and how they affect plant health. 
    The different chapters describe how microbiomes affect plants with regard to immunity, disease conditions, stress management and productivity. In addition, the book describes how an `additional plant genome' functions as a whole organ system of the host, and how it presents both challenges and opportunities for the plant system. Moreover, the book includes a dedicated section on using omics tools to understand these interactions, and on exploiting them to their full potential. 

  • This book presents a comprehensive overview of plant stresses caused by salt, drought, extreme temperatures, oxygen and toxic compounds, which are responsible for huge losses in crop yields. It discusses the latest research on the impact of salinity and global environment changes, and examines the advances in the identification and characterization of the mechanisms that allow plants to tolerate biotic and abiotic stresses. Further it presents our current understanding of metabolic fluxes and the various transporters that collectively open the possibility of applying in vitro technology and genetic engineering to improve stress tolerance. Exploring advanced methods that augment traditional plant tissue culture and breeding techniques toward the development of new crop varieties that can tolerate biotic and abiotic stresses to achieve sustainable food production, this book is a valuable resource for plant scientists and researchers.

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