This book systematically reviews the experiences and problems encountered in the development of China's rural areas over the past three decades since the start of the country's economic reform. As such, it addresses the most important aspects in terms of China's rural communities, farmers and agriculture from the perspective of development, such as the agricultural management system, rural land tenure system, rural fiscal and taxation system, financial system, science and technology system, rural governance structure, poverty alleviation, environmental protection, etc. The approach employed combines essential theories, laws, and policy strategies with rural development practice in order to analyze the success stories and lingering problems, to explore the causes of both, and to offer an outlook on the future of rural development.
This book systematically reviews the development of social policy since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. As such, it begins by investigating the establishment of the Insurance System in the early period, then moves on to the planned economy period, the Cultural Revolution period, and the Reform and Opening Up period, characterized by efforts to adapt to a market economy. For each period, the book examines the effect of the economic system, the mode of production and forms of employment for social policy design, so as to clarify the developing context of Chinese social policy, and to help readers grasp the legal aspects of social policy development and the main problems China faces in its present economic developmental stage.
This SpringerBrief presents research results on QoE management schemes for mobile services, including user services, and resource allocation. Along with a review of the research literature, it offers a data-driven architecture for personalized QoE management in wireless networks. The primary focus is on introducing efficient personalized character extraction mechanisms, e.g., context-aware Bayesian graph model, and cooperative QoE management mechanisms. Moreover, in order to demonstrate in the effectiveness of the QoE model, a QoE measurement platform is described and its collected data examined. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions. The example mechanisms and the data-driven architecture provide useful insights into the designs of QoE management, and motivate a new line of thinking for users' satisfaction in future wireless networks.
This book investigates the modeling and optimization issues in mobile social networks (MSNs). Firstly, the architecture and applications of MSNs are examined. The existing works on MSNs are reviewed by specifying the critical challenges and research issues. Then, with the introduction of MSN-based social graph and information dissemination mechanisms, the analytical model for epidemic information dissemination with opportunistic Links in MSNs is discussed. In addition, optimal resource allocation is studied based on a heterogeneous architecture, which provides mobile social services with high capacity and low latency. Finally, this book summarize some open problems and future research directions in MSNs.
Written for researchers and academics, this book is useful for anyone working on mobile networks, network architecture, or content delivery. It is also valuable for advanced-level students of computer science.
Foreign aid has connected China and the international community through many channels, and created new types of strong partnerships throughout the world. As a recipient country, China and donors have engaged in an unprecedentedly deep level of cooperation on development-related issues. China's development experience has resulted in key changes to the relationships and partnerships between China and donors, from receiving foreign aid to entering into development cooperation. China has provided valuable experiences for other developing countries, experiences that are all the more relevant because they have revealed key factors at work in developing recipient countries. This has also led China to form closer cooperative relationships with other developing countries with regard to development issues. In short, foreign aid has changed China.
This book systematically studies the stochastic non-cooperative differential game theory of generalized linear Markov jump systems and its application in the field of finance and insurance. The book is an in-depth research book of the continuous time and discrete time linear quadratic stochastic differential game, in order to establish a relatively complete framework of dynamic non-cooperative differential game theory. It uses the method of dynamic programming principle and Riccati equation, and derives it into all kinds of existence conditions and calculating method of the equilibrium strategies of dynamic non-cooperative differential game. Based on the game theory method, this book studies the corresponding robust control problem, especially the existence condition and design method of the optimal robust control strategy. The book discusses the theoretical results and its applications in the risk control, option pricing, and the optimal investment problem in the field of finance and insurance, enriching the achievements of differential game research. This book can be used as a reference book for non-cooperative differential game study, for graduate students majored in economic management, science and engineering of institutions of higher learning.
This book focuses on the finite-time control of attitude stabilization, attitude tracking for individual spacecraft, and finite-time control of attitude synchronization. It discusses formation reconfiguration for multiple spacecraft in complex networks, and provides a new fast nonsingular terminal sliding mode surface (FNTSMS). Further, it presents newly designed controllers and several control laws to enhance the performance of spacecraft systems and meet related demands, such as strong disturbance rejection and high-precision control. As such, the book establishes a fundamental framework for these topics, while also highlighting the importance of integrated analysis. It is a useful resource for all researchers and students who are interested in this field, as well as engineers whose work involves designing flight vehicles.
This SpringerBrief offers a comprehensive review and in-depth discussion of the current research on resource management. The authors explain how to best utilize harvested energy and temporally available licensed spectrum. Throughout the brief, the primary focus is energy and spectrum harvesting sensor networks (ESHNs) including energy harvesting (EH)-powered spectrum sensing and dynamic spectrum access.
To efficiently collect data through the available licensed spectrum, this brief examines the joint management of energy and spectrum. An EH-powered spectrum sensing and management scheme for Heterogeneous Spectrum Harvesting Sensor Networks (HSHSNs) is presented in this brief. The scheme dynamically schedules the data sensing and spectrum access of sensors in ESHSNs to optimize the network utility, while considering the stochastic nature of EH process, PU activities and channel conditions.
This brief also provides useful insights for the practical resource management scheme design for ESHSNs and motivates a new line of thinking for future sensor networking. Professionals, researchers, and advanced-level students in electrical or computer engineering will find the content valuable.
This book focuses on the theory and design of special space orbits. Offering a systematic and detailed introduction to the hovering orbit, spiral cruising orbit, multi-target rendezvous orbit, initiative approaching orbit, responsive orbit and earth pole-sitter orbit, it also discusses the concept, theory, design methods and application of special space orbits, particularly the design and control method based on kinematics and astrodynamics. In addition the book presents the latest research and its application in space missions. It is intended for researchers, engineers and postgraduates, especially those working in the fields of orbit design and control, as well as space-mission planning and research.
The objective of this SpringerBrief is to present security architectures and incentive mechanisms to realize system availability for D2D communications. D2D communications enable devices to communicate directly, improving resource utilization, enhancing user's throughput, extending battery lifetime, etc. However, due to the open nature of D2D communications, there are two substantial technical challenges when applied to large-scale applications, that is, security and availability which is demonstrated in this book.
This SpringerBrief proposes a secure data sharing protocol, which merges the advantages of public key cryptography and symmetric encryption, to achieve data security in D2D communications. Furthermore, a joint framework involving both the physical and application layer security technologies is proposed for multimedia service over D2D communications thus the scalable security service can be achieved without changing the current communication framework. Additionally, as the system availability largely depends on the cooperation degree of the users, a graph-theory based cooperative content dissemination scheme is proposed to achieve maximal Quality of Experience (QoE) with fairness and efficiency.
This SpringerBrief will be a valuable resource for advanced-level students and researchers who want to learn more about cellular networks.
Given the most popular understanding of Chinese comparative advantage is their low labour cost, The Source of Innovation in China argues the fundamental source for Chinese economic growth is its innovation. Based on case studies and surveys collected from 600 firms, this book describes competitive advantages of successful Chinese enterprises.
This edited volume has a two-fold purpose. First, comprehensive survey articles provide a way for beginners to ease into the corresponding sub-fields. These are then supplemented by original works that give the more advanced readers a glimpse of the current research in geometric analysis and related PDEs.The book is of significant interest for researchers, including advanced Ph.D. students, working in geometric analysis. Readers who have a secondary interest in geometric analysis will benefit from the survey articles.The results included in this book will stimulate further advances in the subjects: geometric analysis, including complex differential geometry, symplectic geometry, PDEs with a geometric origin, and geometry related to topology.Contributions by Claudio Arezzo, Alberto Della Vedova, Werner Ballmann, Henrik Matthiesen, Panagiotis Polymerakis, Sun-Yung A. Chang, Zheng-Chao Han, Paul Yang, Tobias Holck Colding, William P. Minicozzi II, Panagiotis Dimakis, Richard Melrose, Akito Futaki, Hajime Ono, Jiyuan Han, Jeff A. Viaclovsky, Bruce Kleiner, John Lott, Slawomir Kolodziej, Ngoc Cuong Nguyen, Chi Li, Yuchen Liu, Chenyang Xu, YanYan Li, Luc Nguyen, Bo Wang, Shiguang Ma, Jie Qing, Xiaonan Ma, Sean Timothy Paul, Kyriakos Sergiou, Tristan Rivière, Yanir A. Rubinstein, Natasa Sesum, Jian Song, Jeffrey Streets, Neil S. Trudinger, Yu Yuan, Weiping Zhang, Xiaohua Zhu and Aleksey Zinger.
This book discusses methods and algorithms for the near-optimal adaptive control of nonlinear systems, including the corresponding theoretical analysis and simulative examples, and presents two innovative methods for the redundancy resolution of redundant manipulators with consideration of parameter uncertainty and periodic disturbances.It also reports on a series of systematic investigations on a near-optimal adaptive control method based on the Taylor expansion, neural networks, estimator design approaches, and the idea of sliding mode control, focusing on the tracking control problem of nonlinear systems under different scenarios. The book culminates with a presentation of two new redundancy resolution methods; one addresses adaptive kinematic control of redundant manipulators, and the other centers on the effect of periodic input disturbance on redundancy resolution.Each self-contained chapter is clearly written, making the book accessible to graduate students as well as academic and industrial researchers in the fields of adaptive and optimal control, robotics, and dynamic neural networks.
This book covers the up-to-date advancement of respiratory monitoring in ventilation support as well as detecting the physiological responses to therapeutic interventions to avoid complications. Mechanical ventilation nowadays remains the cornerstone in life saving in critically ill patients with and without respiratory failure. However, conclusive evidences show that mechanical ventilation can also cause lung damage, specifically, in terms of ventilator-induced lung injury.
Respiratory monitoring encloses a series of physiological and pathophysiological measurements, from basic gas exchange and ventilator wave forms to more sophisticated diaphragm function and lung volume assessments. The progress of respiratory monitoring has always been accompanied by advances in technology. However, how to properly conduct the procedures and correctly interpret the data requires clear definition.
The book introduces respiratory monitoring techniques and data analysis, including gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, thoracic imaging, lung volume measurement, and extra-vascular lung water measurement in the initial part. How to interpret the acquired and derived parameters and to illustrate their clinical applications is presented thoroughly. In the following part, the applications of respiratory monitoring in specific diseases and conditions is introduced, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, obstructive pulmonary diseases, patient-ventilator asynchrony, non-invasive ventilation, brain injury with increased intracranial pressure, ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction, and weaning from mechanical ventilation.
This book is intended primarily for ICU physicians and other practitioners including respiratory therapists, ICU nurses and trainees who come into contact with patients under mechanical ventilation. This book also provides guidance for clinical researchers who take part in respiratory and mechanical ventilation researches.
This book provides systematic descriptions of design methods, typical techniques, and validation methods for lunar soft landers, covering their environmental design, system design, sub-system design, assembly, testing and ground test validation based on the Chang'e-3 mission. Offering readers a comprehensive, systematic and in-depth introduction to the technologies used in China's lunar soft landers, it presents detailed information on the design process for Chang'e-3, including methods and techniques that will be invaluable in future extraterrestrial soft lander design. As such, the book offers a unique reference guide for all researchers and professionals working on deep-space missions around the globe.