This open access book provides an extensive treatment of Hardy inequalities and closely related topics from the point of view of Folland and Stein's homogeneous (Lie) groups. The place where Hardy inequalities and homogeneous groups meet is a beautiful area of mathematics with links to many other subjects. While describing the general theory of Hardy, Rellich, Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg, Sobolev, and other inequalities in the setting of general homogeneous groups, the authors pay particular attention to the special class of stratified groups. In this environment, the theory of Hardy inequalities becomes intricately intertwined with the properties of sub-Laplacians and subelliptic partial differential equations. These topics constitute the core of this book and they are complemented by additional, closely related topics such as uncertainty principles, function spaces on homogeneous groups, the potential theory for stratified groups, and the potential theory for general Hrmander's sums of squares and their fundamental solutions.
This monograph is the winner of the 2018 Ferran Sunyer i Balaguer Prize, a prestigious award for books of expository nature presenting the latest developments in an active area of research in mathematics. As can be attested as the winner of such an award, it is a vital contribution to literature of analysis not only because it presents a detailed account of the recent developments in the field, but also because the book is accessible to anyone with a basic level of understanding of analysis. Undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers from any field of mathematical and physical sciences related to analysis involving functional inequalities or analysis of homogeneous groups will find the text beneficial to deepen their understanding.
Since the birth of rational homotopy theory, the possibility of extending the Quillen approach - in terms of Lie algebras - to a more general category of spaces, including the non-simply connected case, has been a challenge for the algebraic topologist community. Despite the clear Eckmann-Hilton duality between Quillen and Sullivan treatments, the simplicity in the realization of algebraic structures in the latter contrasts with the complexity required by the Lie algebra version.
In this book, the authors develop new tools to address these problems. Working with complete Lie algebras, they construct, in a combinatorial way, a cosimplicial Lie model for the standard simplices. This is a key object, which allows the definition of a new model and realization functors that turn out to be homotopically equivalent to the classical Quillen functors in the simply connected case. With this, the authors open new avenues for solving old problems and posing new questions.
This monograph is the winner of the 2020 Ferran Sunyer i Balaguer Prize, a prestigious award for books of expository nature presenting the latest developments in an active area of research in mathematics.
This book focuses on the theory of the Gibbs semigroups, which originated in the 1970s and was motivated by the study of strongly continuous operator semigroups with values in the trace-class ideal. The book offers an up-to-date, exhaustive overview of the advances achieved in this theory after half a century of development. It begins with a tutorial introduction to the necessary background material, before presenting the Gibbs semigroups and then providing detailed and systematic information on the Trotter-Kato product formulae in the trace-norm topology. In addition to reviewing the state-of-art concerning the Trotter-Kato product formulae, the book extends the scope of exposition from the trace-class ideal to other ideals. Here, special attention is paid to results on semigroups in symmetrically normed ideals and in the Dixmier ideal.
By examining the progress made in Gibbs semigroup theory and in extensions of the Trotter-Kato product formulae to symmetrically normed and Dixmier ideals, the book shares timely and valuable insights for readers interested in pursuing these subjects further. As such, it will appeal to researchers, undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics and mathematical physics.
This edited volume has a two-fold purpose. First, comprehensive survey articles provide a way for beginners to ease into the corresponding sub-fields. These are then supplemented by original works that give the more advanced readers a glimpse of the current research in geometric analysis and related PDEs.The book is of significant interest for researchers, including advanced Ph.D. students, working in geometric analysis. Readers who have a secondary interest in geometric analysis will benefit from the survey articles.The results included in this book will stimulate further advances in the subjects: geometric analysis, including complex differential geometry, symplectic geometry, PDEs with a geometric origin, and geometry related to topology.Contributions by Claudio Arezzo, Alberto Della Vedova, Werner Ballmann, Henrik Matthiesen, Panagiotis Polymerakis, Sun-Yung A. Chang, Zheng-Chao Han, Paul Yang, Tobias Holck Colding, William P. Minicozzi II, Panagiotis Dimakis, Richard Melrose, Akito Futaki, Hajime Ono, Jiyuan Han, Jeff A. Viaclovsky, Bruce Kleiner, John Lott, Slawomir Kolodziej, Ngoc Cuong Nguyen, Chi Li, Yuchen Liu, Chenyang Xu, YanYan Li, Luc Nguyen, Bo Wang, Shiguang Ma, Jie Qing, Xiaonan Ma, Sean Timothy Paul, Kyriakos Sergiou, Tristan Rivière, Yanir A. Rubinstein, Natasa Sesum, Jian Song, Jeffrey Streets, Neil S. Trudinger, Yu Yuan, Weiping Zhang, Xiaohua Zhu and Aleksey Zinger.
The present monograph develops a unified theory of Steinberg groups, independent of matrix representations, based on the theory of Jordan pairs and the theory of 3-graded locally finite root systems.
The development of this approach occurs over six chapters, progressing from groups with commutator relations and their Steinberg groups, then on to Jordan pairs, 3-graded locally finite root systems, and groups associated with Jordan pairs graded by root systems, before exploring the volume's main focus: the definition of the Steinberg group of a root graded Jordan pair by a small set of relations, and its central closedness. Several original concepts, such as the notions of Jordan graphs and Weyl elements, provide readers with the necessary tools from combinatorics and group theory.
Steinberg Groups for Jordan Pairs is ideal for PhD students and researchers in the fields of elementary groups, Steinberg groups, Jordan algebras, and Jordan pairs. By adopting a unified approach, anybody interested in this area who seeks an alternative to case-by-case arguments and explicit matrix calculations will find this book essential.
This volume provides a detailed description of some of the most active areas in astrophysics from the largest scales probed by the Planck satellite to massive black holes that lie at the heart of galaxies and up to the much awaited but stunning discovery of thousands of exoplanets. It contains the following chapters:
o Jean-Philippe UZAN, The Big-Bang Theory: Construction, Evolution and Status
o Jean-Loup PUGET, The Planck Mission and the Cosmic Microwave Background
o Reinhard GENZEL, Massive Black Holes: Evidence, Demographics and Cosmic Evolution
o Arnaud CASSAN, New Worlds Ahead: The Discovery of Exoplanets
Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez shared the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy'", alongside Roger Penrose "for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity". The book corresponds to the twentieth Poincaré Seminar, held on November 21, 2015, at Institut Henri Poincaré in Paris.
Originally written as lectures to a broad scientific audience, these four chapters are of high value and will be of general interest to astrophysicists, physicists, mathematicians and historians.
Increasingly, neural networks are used and implemented in a wide range of fields and have become useful tools in probabilistic analysis and prediction theory. This book-unique in the literature-studies the application of neural networks to the analysis of time series of sea data, namely significant wave heights and sea levels. The particular problem examined as a starting point is the reconstruction of missing data, a general problem that appears in many cases of data analysis.
Specific topics covered include:
* Presentation of general information on the phenomenology of waves and tides, as well as related technical details of various measuring processes used in the study
* Description of the model of wind waves (WAM) used to determine the spectral function of waves and predict the behavior of SWH (significant wave heights); a comparison is made of the reconstruction of SWH time series obtained by means of neural network algorithms versus SWH computed by WAM
* Principles of artificial neural networks, approximation theory, and extreme-value theory necessary to understand the main applications of the book.
* Application of artificial neural networks (ANN) to reconstruct SWH and sea levels (SL)
* Comparison of the ANN approach and the approximation operator approach, displaying the advantages of ANN
* Examination of extreme-event analysis applied to the time series of sea data in specific locations
* Generalizations of ANN to treat analogous problems for other types of phenomena and data
This book, a careful blend of theory and applications, is an excellent introduction to the use of ANN, which may encourage readers to try analogous approaches in other important application areas. Researchers, practitioners, and advanced graduate students in neural networks, hydraulic and marine engineering, prediction theory, and data analysis will benefit from the results and novel ideas presented in this useful resource.
Networks have become nearly ubiquitous and increasingly complex, and their support of modern enterprise environments has become fundamental. Accordingly, robust network management techniques are essential to ensure optimal performance of these networks. This monograph treats the application of numerous graph-theoretic algorithms to a comprehensive analysis of dynamic enterprise networks. Network dynamics analysis yields valuable information about network performance, efficiency, fault prediction, cost optimization, indicators and warnings.
The exposition is organized into four relatively independent parts: an introduction and overview of typical enterprise networks and the graph theoretical prerequisites for all algorithms introduced later; an in-depth treatise of usage of various graph distances for event detection; a detailed exploration of properties of underlying graphs with modeling applications; and a theoretical and applied treatment of network behavior inferencing and forecasting using sequences of graphs.
Based on many years of applied research on generic network dynamics, this work covers a number of elegant applications (including many new and experimental results) of traditional graph theory algorithms and techniques to computationally tractable network dynamics analysis to motivate network analysts, practitioners and researchers alike. The material is also suitable for graduate courses addressing state-of-the-art applications of graph theory in analysis of dynamic communication networks, dynamic databasing, and knowledge management.
This volume contains six peer-refereed articles written on the occasion of the workshop Operator theory, system theory and scattering theory: multidimensional generalizations and related topics, held at the Department of Mathematics of the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in June, 2005. The book will interest a wide audience of pure and applied mathematicians, electrical engineers and theoretical physicists.
This volume contains lectures delivered at the International Conference Operator Theory and its Applications in Mathematical Physics (OTAMP 2004), held at the Mathematical Research and Conference Center in Bedlewo near Poznan, Poland. The idea behind these lectures was to present interesting ramifications of operator methods in current research of mathematical physics.
A new edition in a single volume Over the past decade, more and more sophisticaced mathematical tools and approaches have been incorporated in the ?eld of Control of in?nite dim- sional systems. This was motivated by a whole range of challenging appli- tions arising from new phenomenologicalstudies, technologicaldevelopments, and more stringent design requirements. At the same time, researchers and advanced engineers have been steadily using an impressive amount of very sophisticated mathematics in their analysis, synthesis, and design of systems. Whatwasregardedastooabstract,specialized,ortheoreticalin1990hasnow become a standard part of the toolkit. The decision to produce a second edition of the original 1992-1993 t- volume edition is further motivated by several other factors. Over the years the book has been recognizedas a key referencein the ?eld, and a revised and corrected edition was desirable. Even if some good books on the control of in?nite dimensional linear systems have appeared since then, we felt that the original material has not aged too much and that the breadth of its presen- tion is still attractiveand very competitive. The result is a completely revised and corrected second edition in a single convenient volume with integrated bibliography and index.
This monograph deals primarily with the prediction of vector valued stochastic processes that are either weakly stationary, or have weakly stationary increments, from finite segments of their past. The main focus is on the analytic counterpart of these problems, which amounts to computing projections onto subspaces of a Hilbert space of p x 1 vector valued functions with an inner product that is defined in terms of the p x p matrix valued spectral density of the process. The strategy is to identify these subspaces as vector valued de Branges spaces and then to express projections in terms of the reproducing kernels of these spaces and/or in terms of a generalized Fourier transform that is obtained from the solution of an associated inverse spectral problem. Subsequently, the projection of the past onto the future and the future onto the past is interpreted in terms of the range of appropriately defined Hankel operators and their adjoints, and, in the last chapter, assorted computations are carried out for rational spectral densities. The underlying mathematics needed to tackle this class of problems is developed in careful detail, but, to ease the reading, an attempt is made to avoid excessive generality. En route a number of results that, to the best of our knowledge, were only known for p = 1 are generalized to the case p > 1.
This monograph presents controllability and stabilization methods in control theory that solve parabolic boundary value problems. Starting from foundational questions on Carleman inequalities for linear parabolic equations, the author addresses the controllability of parabolic equations on a variety of domains and the spectral decomposition technique for representing them. This method is, in fact, designed for use in a wider class of parabolic systems that include the heat and diffusion equations. Later chapters develop another process that employs stabilizing feedback controllers with a finite number of unstable modes, with special attention given to its use in the boundary stabilization of Navier-Stokes equations for the motion of viscous fluid. In turn, these applied methods are used to explore related topics like the exact controllability of stochastic parabolic equations with linear multiplicative noise.
Intended for graduate students and researchers working on control problems involving nonlinear differential equations, Controllability and Stabilization of Parabolic Equations is the distillation of years of lectures and research. With a minimum of preliminaries, the book leaps into its applications for control theory with both concrete examples and accessible solutions to problems in stabilization and controllability that are still areas of current research.
This is the second of two volumes devoted to earthquakes and multi-hazards around the Pacific Rim. The circum-Pacific seismic belt is home to roughly 80% of the world's largest earthquakes, making it the ideal location for investigating earthquakes and related hazards such as tsunamis and landslides. Following the Introduction, this volume includes 14 papers covering a range of topics related to multi-hazards. The book is divided into five sections: viscoelastic deformation, earthquake source models, earthquake prediction, seismic hazard assessment, and tsunami simulation.Viscoelastic relaxation can play an important role in subduction zone behavior, and this is explored in the first section, with specific examples including the Tohoku-oki earthquake in Eastern Japan. In addition to laboratory rock friction experiments, the second section examines earthquake source models for the 2016 MW 6.6 Aketao earthquake in Eastern Pamir and two earthquakes in Eastern Taiwan, along with strong ground motion studies of the 2008 MW 7.9 Wenchuan, China earthquake. The Load/Unload Response Ratio (LURR), Natural Time (NT), and "nowcasting" are earthquake prediction techniques that are analyzed in the third section, with nowcasting predictions performed for a number of large cities globally. Viscoelastic relaxation can play an important role in subduction zone behavior, assessment are the focus of the fourth section, with specific applications to the Himalayan-Tibetan region and the Xianshuihe Fault Zone in Southwest China. In the last section, a new approach in modeling tsunami height distributions is described.Rapid advances are being made in our understanding of multi-hazards, as well as the range of tools used to investigate them. This volume provides a representative cross-section of how state-of-the-art knowledge and tools are currently being applied to multi-hazards around the Pacific Rim. The material here should be of interest to scientists involved in all areas of multi-hazards, particularly seismic and tsunami hazards. In addition, it offers a valuable resource for students in the geosciences, covering a broad spectrum of topics related to hazard research.
This book presents 29 invited articles written by participants of the International Workshop on Operator Theory and its Applications held in Chemnitz in 2017. The contributions include both expository essays and original research papers illustrating the diversity and beauty of insights gained by applying operator theory to concrete problems. The topics range from control theory, frame theory, Toeplitz and singular integral operators, Schrdinger, Dirac, and Kortweg-de Vries operators, Fourier integral operator zeta-functions, C*-algebras and Hilbert C*-modules to questions from harmonic analysis, Monte Carlo integration, Fibonacci Hamiltonians, and many more.
The book offers researchers in operator theory open problems from applications that might stimulate their work and shows those from various applied fields, such as physics, engineering, or numerical mathematics how to use the potential of operator theory to tackle interesting practical problems.
The solitaire game "The Tower of Hanoi" was invented in the 19th century by the French number theorist Édouard Lucas. The book presents its mathematical theory and offers a survey of the historical development from predecessors up to recent research. In addition to long-standing myths, it provides a detailed overview of the essential mathematical facts with complete proofs, and also includes unpublished material, e.g., on some captivating integer sequences. The main objects of research today are the so-called Hanoi graphs and the related Sierpinski graphs. Acknowledging the great popularity of the topic in computer science, algorithms, together with their correctness proofs, form an essential part of the book. In view of the most important practical applications, namely in physics, network theory and cognitive (neuro)psychology, the book also addresses other structures related to the Tower of Hanoi and its variants.The updated second edition includes, for the first time in English, the breakthrough reached with the solution of the "The Reve's Puzzle" in 2014. This is a special case of the famed Frame-Stewart conjecture which is still open after more than 75 years. Enriched with elaborate illustrations, connections to other puzzles and challenges for the reader in the form of (solved) exercises as well as problems for further exploration, this book is enjoyable reading for students, educators, game enthusiasts and researchers alike.Excerpts from reviews of the first edition: "The book is an unusual, but very welcome, form of mathematical writing: recreational mathematics taken seriously and serious mathematics treated historically. I don't hesitate to recommend this book to students, professional research mathematicians, teachers, and to readers of popular mathematics who enjoy more technical expository detail."Chris Sangwin, The Mathematical Intelligencer 37(4) (2015) 87f. "The book demonstrates that the Tower of Hanoi has a very rich mathematical structure, and as soon as we tweak the parameters we surprisingly quickly find ourselves in the realm of open problems."László Kozma, ACM SIGACT News 45(3) (2014) 34ff. "Each time I open the book I discover a renewed interest in the Tower of Hanoi. I am sure that this will be the case for all readers."Jean-Paul Allouche, Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society 93 (2014) 56.
This book provides a thrilling history of the famous priority dispute between Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Isaac Newton, presenting the episode for the first time in the context of cultural history. It introduces readers to the background of the dispute, details its escalation, and discusses the aftermath of the big divide, which extended well into rThe Early Challengesnd the story is very intelligibly explained - an approach that offers general readers interested in the history of sciences and mathematics a window into the world of these two giants in their field.
From the epilogue to the German edition by Eberhard Knobloch:Thomas Sonar has traced the emergence and the escalation of this conflict, which was heightened by Leibniz's rejection of Newton's gravitation theory, in a grandiose, excitingly written monograph. With absolute competence, he also explains the mathematical context so that non-mathematicians will also profit from the book. Quod erat demonstrandum!
This book provides a selection of reports and survey articles on the latest research in the area of single and multivariable operator theory and related fields. The latter include singular integral equations, ordinary and partial differential equations, complex analysis, numerical linear algebra, and real algebraic geometry - all of which were among the topics presented at the 26th International Workshop in Operator Theory and its Applications, held in Tbilisi, Georgia, in the summer of 2015.Moreover, the volume includes three special commemorative articles. One of them is dedicated to the memory of Leiba Rodman, another to Murray Marshall, and a third to Boris Khvedelidze, an outstanding Georgian mathematician and one of the founding fathers of the theory of singular integral equations.The book will be of interest to a broad range of mathematicians, from graduate students to researchers, whose primary interests lie in operator theory, complex analysis and applications, as well as specialists in mathematical physics.
Written in honor of Victor Havin (19332015), this volume presents a collection of surveys and original papers on harmonic and complex analysis, function spaces and related topics, authored by internationally recognized experts in the fields. It also features an illustrated scientific biography of Victor Havin, one of the leading analysts of the second half of the 20th century and founder of the Saint Petersburg Analysis Seminar. A complete list of his publications, as well as his public speech "Mathematics as a source of certainty and uncertainty", presented at the Doctor Honoris Causa ceremony at Linkping University, are also included.
This book is the fifth and final volume of Raoul Bott's Collected Papers. It collects all of Bott's published articles since 1991 as well as some articles published earlier but missing in the earlier volumes. The volume also contains interviews with Raoul Bott, several of his previously unpublished speeches, commentaries by his collaborators such as Alberto Cattaneo and Jonathan Weitsman on their joint articles with Bott, Michael Atiyah's obituary of Raoul Bott, Loring Tu's authorized biography of Raoul Bott, and reminiscences of Raoul Bott by his friends, students, colleagues, and collaborators, among them Stephen Smale, David Mumford, Arthur Jaffe, Shing-Tung Yau, and Loring Tu. The mathematical articles, many inspired by physics, encompass stable vector bundles, knot and manifold invariants, equivariant cohomology, and loop spaces. The nonmathematical contributions give a sense of Bott's approach to mathematics, style, personality, zest for life, and humanity. In one of the articles, from the vantage point of his later years, Raoul Bott gives a tour-de-force historical account of one of his greatest achievements, the Bott periodicity theorem. A large number of the articles originally appeared in hard-to-find conference proceedings or journals. This volume makes them all easily accessible.
It also features a collection of photographs giving a panoramic view of Raoul Bott's life and his interaction with other mathematicians.
This book features a collection of recent findings in Applied Real and Complex Analysis that were presented at the 3rd International Conference "Boundary Value Problems, Functional Equations and Applications" (BAF-3), held in Rzeszow, Poland on 20-23 April 2016. The contributions presented here develop a technique related to the scope of the workshop and touching on the fields of differential and functional equations, complex and real analysis, with a special emphasis on topics related to boundary value problems. Further, the papers discuss various applications of the technique, mainly in solid mechanics (crack propagation, conductivity of composite materials), biomechanics (viscoelastic behavior of the periodontal ligament, modeling of swarms) and fluid dynamics (Stokes and Brinkman type flows, Hele-Shaw type flows). The book is addressed to all readers who are interested in the development and application of innovative research results that can help solve theoretical and real-world problems.
This book features a selection of articles based on the XXXV Bialowieza Workshop on Geometric Methods in Physics, 2016. The series of Bialowieza workshops, attended by a community of experts at the crossroads of mathematics and physics, is a major annual event in the field. The works in this book, based on presentations given at the workshop, are previously unpublished, at the cutting edge of current research, typically grounded in geometry and analysis, and with applications to classical and quantum physics. In 2016 the special session "Integrability and Geometry" in particular attracted pioneers and leading specialists in the field. Traditionally, the Bialowieza Workshop is followed by a School on Geometry and Physics, for advanced graduate students and early-career researchers, and the book also includes extended abstracts of the lecture series.
This volume, which is dedicated to Heinz Langer, includes biographical material and carefully selected papers. Heinz Langer has made fundamental contributions to operator theory. In particular, he has studied the domains of operator pencils and nonlinear eigenvalue problems, the theory of indefinite inner product spaces, operator theory in Pontryagin and Krein spaces, and applications to mathematical physics. His works include studies on and applications of Schur analysis in the indefinite setting, where the factorization theorems put forward by Krein and Langer for generalized Schur functions, and by Dijksma-Langer-Luger-Shondin, play a key role. The contributions in this volume reflect Heinz Langer's chief research interests and will appeal to a broad readership whose work involves operator theory.
This collection documents the work of the Hyperuniverse Project which is a new approach to set-theoretic truth based on justifiable principles and which leads to the resolution of many questions independent from ZFC. The contributions give an overview of the program, illustrate its mathematical content and implications, and also discuss its philosophical assumptions. It will thus be of wide appeal among mathematicians and philosophers with an interest in the foundations of set theory. The Hyperuniverse Project was supported by the John Templeton Foundation from January 2013 until September 2015