The hypothalamus is an anatomically small but functionally important part of the brain. In functional and pathophysiological terms, the hypothalamus represents the intersection of several areas of clinical and medical expertise. The human hypothalamus can be astutely referred to as the crossroad of endocrinology, psychiatry, neurology and neurosurgery. Because of its involvement in myriad physiologic functions and the varied ways disorders involving it can manifest, hypothalamic disease can initially come to medical attention in widely disparate settings and with widely different clinicians. Therefore, the detection and proper care of hypothalamic dysfunction and disease often requires carefully coordinated multidisciplinary care.
This volume fills a significant void in the medical professional community, comprehensively presenting the scope of hypothalamic structure, function, dysfunction and disease to cater to the various clinical, teaching and research professionals that have a stake in this part of the human brain. This text captures in one place all the information that practicing clinicians, clinician scientists, and researchers need to be adequately informed about various aspects of the hypothalamus in all its complexity. It is comprehensive and broad in scope so that it provides relevant reference information for the wide range of professionals involved in the pre- and post-mortem detection, diagnosis, characterization, care and management of various hypothalamic disorders and diseases in addition to providing a sound anatomic and physiologic foundation of the normal human hypothalamus. The Human Hypothalamus can be used to differing degrees by medical professionals and students alike, finding utility for interested general clinicians, medical school and allied health professional teaching faculty as well as subspecialists in domains as wide as neurosurgery, neuroendocrinology, clinical psychiatry and neuro-oncology.
This comprehensive volume presents an approach based on cutting edge clinical science to the integration of healthy behaviors in clinical practice, using three major categories; healthy eating, active living, and mindfulness. Chapters are authored and edited by a select group of national and international experts in their respective fields who have developed these concepts for application in routine practice. All chapters are formatted to provide key learning points and summarized conclusions for easy reference. Topics include the DASH diet, plant based nutrition, the Mediterranean diet, beneficial herbs and spices, fitness, spirituality, meditation, healthy sleep, and disease prevention.
Nutrition, Fitness, and Mindfulness will be a useful guide for all clinicians and healthcare professionals encouraging patients to make more thoughtful and healthy lifestyle choices.
Currently, available information on pediatric and adolescent diabetes is limited to chapters in larger books covering the broader topic of pediatric endocrinology, and these do not have the space to delve into specific topics. This concise, timely book contains everything that a practicing provider needs to know in order to provide comprehensive, up-to-date care for children and adolescents with diabetes, from the latest methods for diagnosing various types of diabetes to integrating cutting-edge technology in the care of this patient population. Initial management, the use of insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitoring, and automated insulin delivery are discussed in detail, as are nutrition therapy, exercise, psychosocial challenges, acute and long-term complications, and future directions for treatment and research. Further, this book provides clinicians with guidelines for the implementation of best practices as outlined by leading associations such as the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and International Society of Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD).
The Yale Children's Diabetes Program has been ranked among the best in the United States, including clinicians and researchers who are world-renowned for their efforts in improving the care of children with diabetes. This wealth of knowledge and experience positions the author team well as experts in this field.
This book comprehensively covers chronic lung disease and cardiovascular disease and their influence on one another including the epidemiology, physiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnostic issues including laboratory and imaging tests, and therapeutic considerations. How the diseases specifically overlap is explored in detail, covering presentation, symptoms, clinical examination findings, diagnostic test results, as well as a number of important medication interactions. The cardiovascular considerations in this book will include left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular disease, as well as cardiac arrhythmias. The book also addresses extra-cardiac cardiovascular comorbidities such as cerebrovascular disease and peripheral arterial disease. Each chapter includes detailed illustrations as well as useful pearls and best practices, making this an ideal reference for pulmonologists, cardiologists, and residents caring for patients with increased risk for these comorbidities.
This book is a comprehensive guide to the diagnosis and management of all stages of pulmonary embolism, starting with acute and ending with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is responsible for 150-250,000 hospitalizations and 60-100,000 deaths each year in the United States, making it the third most common cause of cardiovascular death. Acute PE spans a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes mainly based on the right ventricle's (RV) capacity to tolerate strain. There have been many recent advances in the field of PE, including guidelines on classification and risk stratification, anticoagulation, as well as evolving areas in treatment options and follow up.The text begins with a review of the epidemiology and risk factors for PE. Chapters then delve into reviewing the decision pathways based on PE severity and treatment options, including the use of oral anticoagulation, systemic and catheter-directed thrombolysis, mechanical and surgical thrombectomy, and hemodynamic support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The text then focuses on post-PE complications such as post-PE syndrome, chronic thromboembolic disease, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).This is an ideal guide for providers of lung health, including pulmonary and critical care physicians, cardiologists, thoracic and cardiovascular surgeons. Physician-trainees, physician assistants, nurses and respiratory therapists with interest in pulmonary disorders, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary embolism, critical care or pulmonary hypertension will also find great value in this comprehensive guide.
This book serves as the primary reference for precision medicine in the fields of pulmonary, critical care and sleep medicine by documenting principles written by experts in several aspects of precision medicine. It combines fundamental concepts of the field with state-of-the-art studies and how they translate into individual preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic plans. Precision medicine is focused on the integration of individual variability with disease prevention and treatment principles derived from population studies. This concept has risen to prominence in recent years in parallel with advances in genetics, molecular diagnostics and novel target-specific therapies. This fundamental shift in the approach to treatment has broad implications in how we prevent, diagnose and treat disease. Describing key concepts of precision medicine and relating these to pulmonary, critical care and sleep disorders is essential to educate relevant stakeholders and increase the impact of pulmonary precision medicine. The book is organized into seven sections: introduction; genetics; biomarkers; precise phenotyping; mobile health, wearables and telemedicine; precision therapeutics; and enabling widespread adoption of precision medicine. The chapters are organized with an introduction to the specific theme, followed by its basic concepts. They then delve into how these basic concepts relate to the larger theme of precision medicine, new precision medicine approaches to dealing with these problems, and key takeaway points. Liberally illustrated with images, figures, and tables, the text is thorough and intuitive for clinicians and researchers to learn the processes and applications of precision medicine. This is an ideal guide for clinicians to learn new precision medicine concepts in the fields of genetics, genomics, mobile health, and how they apply to their practice and their patients, as well as researchers seeking a basic understanding of precision medicine to assist in designing future research studies.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the multisystem disease, cystic fibrosis, for both pediatric and adult patients. Written by experts in the field, the text outlines the progressive nature of CF as well as the impact of this autosomal recessive disease on the respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine, rheumatologic, and renal systems, as well as the patient's mental health. The book begins with a chapter describing the history of cystic fibrosis and how the face of this life-shortening disease has changed over the past several decades. The following chapters elucidate the pathophysiology of how cystic fibrosis impacts each organ system. Current management and therapeutics are detailed with step-by-step guidelines for clinicians. This book is unique in that it highlights the entire person, not just the respiratory system, with detailed inclusion of the patient perspectives throughout, informing practice standards and considerations. This is an ideal guide for pediatric and adult physicians who care for patients with cystic fibrosis, as well as respiratory therapists, physical therapists, nurses, nutritionists, and pharmacists who care for these patients.
This fully updated and revised new edition provides a comprehensive, state-of-the art review of this field, and will serve as a valuable resource for clinicians, surgeons and researchers with an interest in prostate cancer. The book reviews new data about molecular characteristics of the disease, profiles the new grading system for prostate cancer introduced in 2015, and provides new perspectives about imaging of prostate cancer, as well as the role of targeted biopsies. The text summarizes the role of biomarkers and MRI in patient selection and management and details the world wide results of active surveillance. Specific chapters address communication and ethical issues, QOL outcomes, economic aspects, and psycho-social aspects of surveillance. The role of focal therapy for low risk disease is summarized, and the data supporting preventive interventions during surveillance reviewed. This text will serve as a very useful resource for physicians and researchers dealing with, and interested in this common malignancy, as it provides a concise yet comprehensive summary of the current status of the field that will help guide patient management and stimulate investigative efforts.
Cancer cell biology research in general, and anti-cancer drug development specifically, still relies on standard cell culture techniques that place the cells in an unnatural environment. As a consequence, growing tumor cells in plastic dishes places a selective pressure that substantially alters their original molecular and phenotypic properties.The emerging field of regenerative medicine has developed bioengineered tissue platforms that can better mimic the structure and cellular heterogeneity of in vivo tissue, and are suitable for tumor bioengineering research. Microengineering technologies have resulted in advanced methods for creating and culturing 3-D human tissue. By encapsulating the respective cell type or combining several cell types to form tissues, these model organs can be viable for longer periods of time and are cultured to develop functional properties similar to native tissues. This approach recapitulates the dynamic role of cell-cell, cell-ECM, and mechanical interactions inside the tumor. Further incorporation of cells representative of the tumor stroma, such as endothelial cells (EC) and tumor fibroblasts, can mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment. Collectively, bioengineered tumors create an important resource for the in vitro study of tumor growth in 3D including tumor biomechanics and the effects of anti-cancer drugs on 3D tumor tissue. These technologies have the potential to overcome current limitations to genetic and histological tumor classification and development of personalized therapies.
This book is designed to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art resource for clinicians who care for patients with sepsis and research scientist alike, . Patients with severe sepsis requiring ICU admission have very high rates of ICU and overall hospital mortality, with estimates ranging from 18 to 50%. Risk factors for death from sepsis include underlying illness, increased age, and multi-system organ failure. This is compounded by the significant variation in the management of early severe sepsis. Care of these patients and clinical conditions can be quite complex, and materials are collected from the most current, evidence-based resources. Book sections have been structured to review the overall definitions and epidemiology of sepsis as well as current insights into the pathophysiology of sepsis. This review summarizes the evidence for the international consensus guidelines for the identification and management of sepsis. The latter part of this book reviews emerging concepts and approaches in the diagnosis and management of sepsis that may significantly reduce mortality in the future. Sepsis: Pathophysiology, Definitions and the Challenge of Bedside Management represents a collaboration between authors drawn from a variety of disciplines and contributions from basic scientists and highly recognized clinical opinion leaders with expertise in clinical trials.?
This practical resource provides the latest evidence, management strategies and recommendations for the treatment of disorders of the adrenal glands, including related physiology, genetics and pharmacology. This book is divided into three thematic sections. The first covers adrenal physiology, presenting adrenal zonation and development, the regulation of steroidogenesis, and the pharmacology of glucocortisoids. Part two discusses the genetics and pathophysiology of a number of adrenal disorders, including autoimmune Addison's disease, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, primary aldosteronism, adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias, and pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. The final section presents the latest diagnostic and management strategies for these disorders, addressing adrenal insufficiency, adrenal Cushing's Syndrome and aldosteronism, among others.Over the past twenty years, our understanding of disorders of the adrenal glands has been altered and deepened. Providing a much-needed update to the literature, Adrenal Disorders: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Treatment will be an important resource for both academic and clinical endocrinologists working with the adrenal glands and managing patients with adrenal disorders.
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the incidence is predicted to increase with the aging population Several clinical disorders can initiate ARDS, including pneumonia, sepsis, gastric aspiration and trauma but despite intense research over the past 40 years, we still have an incomplete understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and treatment remains largely supportive. This book provides an overview of acute lung injury and repair, describes current animal models to study lung injury and reviews current methodologies to study and measure lung injury and repair. Special emphasis is given to state of the art techniques and methods and relevance to human disease. Acute Lung Injury and Repair: Scientific Fundamentals and Methods is a useful resource for physicians and scientists who are interested in experimental model systems for insight into ARDS pathogenesis and treatment strategies. ?
This book offers a comprehensive overview of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, an inherited condition that leads to lung disease in adults and liver disease in adults and children and is associated with chronic obstructive lung disease in adults. While it is a rare condition, the mechanisms underlying the clinical manifestations of this deficiency have been largely clarified. Treatment, however, is available only for the lung disease that arises from the condition, thus necessitating continued research into new and alternative therapeutic solutions. The book discusses the biology of alpha-1 antitrypsin, protein misfolding and polymerization, and diagnosis and treatment of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and its associated diseases. It concludes with a discussion of rare disorders linked to alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and the role of healthcare organizations in the treatment of these diseases. Written for pulmonary clinicians and scientists, Alpha-1 Antitrypsin: Role in Health and Disease is a valuable resource that sheds light on this rare disease.
Now in a fully revised and updated second edition, written and editing by leading experts in the field, this comprehensive and practical text brings together the latest guidelines and recommendations on the benefits of exercise and physical activity in the management of diabetes and its complications, providing both the researcher and practitioner with evidence-based information that is both theoretically and clinically useful. Part one sets the stage by discussing the epidemiology and prevention of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. The physiological effects of exercise in type 2 diabetes are covered in part two, covering molecular mechanisms, adiposity, sex differences, cardiovascular consequences and musculoskeletal changes. Part three addresses practical issues that are essential in order to safely engage patients with diabetes in exercise-related research protocols and clinical programs, including DPP and LOOK Ahead, nutrition, behavioral changes, and guidelines for exercise testing. The final section examines special considerations for exercise in people with diabetes, such as those with neuropathy, cardiac issues and peripheral artery disease. Taken together, Diabetes and Exercise, Second Edition brings together the latest information and thought leaders in the field to create a unique and useful text for all clinicians, researchers and therapists working to integrate physical activity into their management strategies for the increasing number of diabetic patients.
This thoroughly updated edition covers all clinical aspects of neuroinflammation. The latest developments in pathogenesis and advances in treatment are provided, along with an understanding of the immune system's role and interactions between the activated immune cells, cerebral endothelial cells, and other main components of the immune cascade. Cutting-edge and authoritative, this volume offers practitioners a valuable resource for research and clinical practice.
This book will focus on DNA and histone methylation in epigenetics and describe how it is involved in the molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of cancer. Chapters will summarize the current knowledge of the molecular basis of DNA and histone methylation and explain how it is involved in cancer, describe the features of DNA and histone methylation associated with particular types of cancer, diagnostic/therapeutic applications, and future directions of DNA and histone methylation as cancer targets.
This book provides a comprehensive framework for treatment and management of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In recent years great strides have been made toward understanding the pathogenesis and clinical aspects of BPD, which is the most common chronic lung disease affecting infants. This one-stop resource is written by leading scientists and clinicians in the field, and chapters discuss the most recent developments in the basic scientific, translational, and clinical characteristics of the disease. Topics such as hyperoxia, pre- and post-natal inflammation, and genetics and biomarkers of BPD are included, as well as non-invasive ventilation techniques, nutrition, and radiology applications from pre-term birth to adulthood. The book closes with an in-depth look at emerging therapeutic options for prevention of BPD. Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia is an essential volume for all neonatologists, pediatric pulmonologists, and scientists interested in developmental disorders of the lung.
This volume will be the first to provide a comprehensive description of tumor dormancy. It will define the clinical and biological aspects of this phenomenon, as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with tumor dormancy. Chapters will be authored by world-renewed experts who are conducting cutting-edge research in the field. A unique feature will be a conclusive paragraph detailing future development and foreseeable clinical applications at the end of each chapter. The volume will serve as a fundamental instrument for every researcher and clinician interested in the field of tumor dormancy as well as a means of disseminating stimulating concepts and prompting the development of innovative technological solutions.
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are members of the group C family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Eight different mGlu subtypes have been identified and classified into three groups based on amino acid sequence similarity, agonist pharmacology, and the signal transduction pathways to which they couple. They perform a variety of functions in the central and peripheral nervous systems, being involved in learning, memory, anxiety, and the perception of pain. They are found in pre- and postsynaptic neurons in synapses of the hippocampus, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex, as well as other parts of the bain and peripheral tissues. This volume will focus on the latest research in the role of Group I mGluRs in health and disease.
This book presents pulmonary outcomes of prematurity, from their emergence in infancy through to their consequences in adulthood. With an increasing number of preterm births and more infants surviving, there is now a larger population of adults with lung disease originating in infancy requiring specialized care. Looking at the whole group of preterm infants, not just those with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, this text covers a wide spectrum of pulmonary outcomes, including: pulmonary hypertension, wheezing, and alterations in sleep. The chapter authors focus on critically appraising what is and is not known about each outcome and suggest key questions that still need to be answered. Respiratory Outcomes in Preterm Infants: Sequelae from Infancy through Adulthood is an ideal reference for the multidisciplinary group that cares for these preterm infants and the adults they become, including: neonatologists, pediatric pulmonologists, pediatricians, adult pulmonologists, primary care physicians, nurses, and fellows.
Ultrasound in the Intensive Care Unit explores the current state of evidence supporting use of bedside ultrasound for procedural guidance and for the critical care-focused assessment of a variety of organ systems. This text covers standard practice areas, such as ultrasound guidance for vascular access in the ICU, as well as novel, less well-known applications such as the use of ultrasound for assessment of diaphragm function in patients with respiratory failure. As current ultrasound education is often dependent on widely varying local expertise, this book serves as a standard reference in what is at present a fragmented and challenging field of study for busy clinicians. By providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of critical care ultrasonography, with content contributed by experts in the field, this text will serve as a valuable resource that will allow education in critical care ultrasound to keep pace with the rapid technological growth that has driven this vital area of critical care medicine. Ultrasound in the Intensive Care Unit is essential reading for pulmonologists, practitioners in internal, hospitalist, and critical care medicine; educators and instructors in critical care ultrasound; and medical students, residents, and critical care trainees.
This text is designed to provide readers with a useful and comprehensive resource and state-of-the-art overview about the new, growing and fast-expanding field of "liquid biopsy" for the management of cancer patients. The liquid biopsy represents an important turning point in oncology since it provides a tool for a serial monitoring of disease. Liquid biopsy is our "hand lens" to follow molecular changes that characterize tumor development and progression. The book provide a unique and valuable resource on the clinical relevance of liquid biopsy as well as on the technical aspects of liquid biopsy analysis. All invited authors are recognized experts in their field.
Liquid Biopsy in Cancer Patients: The Hand Lens for Tumor Evolution is targeted to resident and fellows physicians, medical oncologists, molecular biologists and biotechnologists.
This book discusses normal sex-related differences in lung structure and function and the role these differences play in lung disease. New research on the effects of sex hormone signaling on specific cell types of the lung has begun to reveal how these hormones may drive or prevent lung disease. Expertly written chapters examine the effects of sex hormones on normal pulmonary structure and function, hormone signaling in lung health, and specific diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, and lung cancer. Gender, Sex Hormones, and Respiratory Disease: A Comprehensive Guide focuses on our current understanding and the gaps in research, with suggestions for future directions and implications for therapy. This book is a useful reference for pulmonologists and researchers and will prompt further inquiry aimed at improving overall lung health.
This book provides an overview of pulmonary hypertensive diseases, the current understanding of their pathobiology, and a contemporary approach to diagnosis and treatment. It discusses the definition and classification of these disorders and the epidemiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); explores the approach to diagnosis and evaluation via methods such as echocardiography, right heart catheterization, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing; describes the major drug classes used to treat PAH and the cell signaling pathways that they target as well as adjunct and investigative therapies; and highlights special situations that are particularly challenging in the management of PAH. Written by experts in their respective fields, Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Hypertension is a valuable resource for pulmonologists, cardiologists, and practitioners in internal medicine and critical care.