Physica

  • The editors and research team would like to thank the management and staff of TPC, who must remain anonymous. Without their enthusiastic - volvement, openness and patience, this project would not have been pos- ble. We hope that the outcomes are useful to them and any others wishing to understand the complexities and implications of becoming virtual. June 2007 Jane Klobas Paul Jackson Contents Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Part 1 - Envisioning and Planning for Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1 Aligning Goals, Virtuality and Capability: A Virtual Alignment Model Paul Jackson and Jane Klobas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2 Envisioning and Monitoring the Process of Becoming Virtual Paul Jackson and Jane Klobas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3 The Challenge of Becoming Virtual Jane Klobas and Stefano Renzi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Part 2 - New Insights into Knowledge Management and Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 4 Social Uncertainty in Virtual Organizations: A Preliminary Ontology of the Constituent Elements Ivan Jensen and Paul Jackson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5 When Communities of Practice Fail: Community Ties and Organizational Commitment Gaela Bernini and Jane Klobas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 6 An Exploratory Survey of the Structure and Components of Organizational Memory Paul Jackson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 viii Contents 7 The Organization as a Transactive Memory System Paul Jackson and Jane Klobas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 8 Adoption of Technologies for Virtual Work Stefano Renzi, Jane Klobas and Paul Jackson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 9 Monitoring, Control and the Performance of Virtual Work Paul Jackson, Jane Klobas and Hosein Gharavi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Part 3 - Understanding Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 10 The Challenge of Becoming Virtual, Part 2 Jane Klobas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  • This book uses risk in its dictionary meaning as the probabiHty of an unde­ sirable outcome, and has two research questions: when managers make de­ cisions, what leads them to choose a risky alternative? and: what deter­ mines whether the decision proves correct? Answers to these questions form a model of decision making that explains the process and results of managers' risk-taking in the real world. There is an extensive literature on risk and decision making because the topic has been of interest in many disciplines since at least the 18^^ century. Thus insights on the research questions are available from studies of ani­ mals, humans and organisations; and have been drawn by scholars in biol­ ogy, psychology, finance and management. Even so, there is a large gap as most studies are conducted away from corporate settings and use subjects with limited decision experience. The few studies set in real-world condi­ tions tend to concentrate on just a single aspect of decision makers' attrib­ utes, setting and behaviour, and on either decision choices or outcomes. The empirical work in this book is designed to fill part of this gap.

  • Reusability of information models has been discussed in science and practice for many years. Reference models are information models that are developed with the aim of being reused for different but similar application scenarios. They primarily promise time and cost savings, since parts of the reference models can be reused. The topic of reference modeling is addressed in this book from different perspectives: Besides reference modeling languages that provide special modeling language concepts for the development and application of reference models, reference modeling methodologies are discussed, which additionally provide procedure models for the construction and application of reference models. Moreover, particular reference models are discussed and evaluated.

  • The Italian university system, along the mainstream of the European higher education systems, is adopting efficiency and effectiveness as criteria for process programming and result managing. For this purpose, both the national system headed by the Ministry of Edu- tion, University and Research, and the universities, within their managerial autonomy, activated since the 1990s a systematic assessment of their research and teaching activities and of other services. The assessment on a large scale of aspects of the educational system started in Italy when the Ministry imposed in 1999 that the teaching of each course of Bachelor and Master programmes be evaluated by the student and that s- thetic marks be sent to a National Board for University System Evaluation (CNVSU) for comparative and intervention purposes. The compelling need to assess the course quality not only demolished the atavic distrust that part of the academics have had against the assessment of the teaching, but also started, in a concrete way, the participation of students to activities dedicated to them. Moreover, the widespread consciousness of teaching assessment, as a tool for empowering the higher education system, entered the Ministry and universities' agenda. Even though the use of the course evaluations, for intervention purposes, still is limited to the most fanciful and fearless faculties and universities, the process has started and it will not be easy to circumvent.

  • Despite an improved analytical knowledge of poverty, a complex multilateral transfer system of official development assistance (ODA), and a list of clearly defined objectives (Millennium Development Goals), poverty reduction in low-income countries remains a great challenge for researchers and practitioners alike. After an era of pessimism, recent empirical studies indicate that foreign aid leads to economic growth under certain conditions, for example a sound policy environment. However, whether or not aid also alleviates poverty is a highly debated issue.
    Against this background, the book assesses the prospects of ODA for poverty reduction. The author analyzes the entire value chain of ODA, including the provision, allocation and utilization. Within each of these components, scope and limits of aid are critically examined. The horizontal interactions between donors and recipients as well as the vertical connections to local and region-specific conditions represent the heart of this book's approach.

  • 1. 1 Motivation and main question of this research A modern society faces two alternatives with regards to its population trend. It can either grow or age. A population which chooses not to grow any more (or which chooses to shrink) will necessarily age. And because of the impossibility of all populations in all countries growing forever, it is likely that every country will face this ageing process at some point in time. Because of this and the importance of economic growth for the well-being of a society, the relationship between an ageing population and economic growth will be relevant for each country. It is already an important and much discussed matter for many. Although population ageing is faced by virtually all industrialised countries, the time frame and the intensity of the process vary. The substantial changes forecasted for the demographic structure of many countries over coming decades have led to substantial research activity aiming to analyse and quantify the effects of these changes on a nation's economic performance. ^ A change in population size and population growth rate can af­ fect both the demand and supply side of an economy. The extent of the effects, however, is not clear. ^ The structure of a population (for example, regarding distribution of age or gender) may also influence the economic performance of a society.

  • This work examines the political economy of exchange-rate policies in the eastward expansion of the eurozone. Analysis shows that prospective members of the EMU are likely to pass on some costs of convergence to the current EMU members. The mechanism is an altered exchange-rate policy that utilizes a "threaten-thy-neighbour" strategy. This could ensure a stabilization of the CEECs' convergence toward the EMU, and a successful eastward enlargement of the eurozone.

  • In recent years, logistics outsourcing has gained increasing importance and today is used by a large number of firms across virtually all industries worldwide. Logistics service providers have developed a wide array of services that are utilized to improve logistics processes - and mainly to cut costs.This book uses state-of-the-art scientific methods to reveal that most firms currently do not realize the full potential of logistics outsourcing. It shows the complexity of outsourcing performance and that its true drivers lie in the relationship between service providers and their customers. Through the results of a large-scale empirical survey, the book also emphasizes the importance of a firm's approach towards outsourcing: solely striving for cost reductions may be a dead end, while the often overlooked increased logistics service levels are equally important for boosting logistics performance. In the light of current outsourcing practices, this indicates substantial room for improvement for most firms.

  • Customer integration in the early innovation phase has been considered the method of choice in theory and practice. Growing experience with the concept has shown unexpected side effects that may even outweigh its recognized advantages. Therefore, management needs to be able to assess in advance whether the involvement of customers will add overall value to each particular innovation project. To support but not to replace the final managerial decision, a mathematical formula is developed. It can be applied to all kinds of process structures, takes into account the risks and benefits contingent on a company's situation as well as risk-reducing and benefit-increasing measures and translates them into numerical values. The resulting figure indicates the prospective value of customer integration in a specific project.
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  • Corporate communication has developed as a domain of management, embracing fields like public relations and marketing communication. Most research on the topic has concentrated on positivist approaches, leading to a limited view. The purpose of this study is to review extant corporate communication theory from discourse and strategy-as-practice perspectives, expanding the picture by more `communicational' aspects. An integrative framework of alternative corporate communication is proposed as a key contribution to corporate communication theory.
    Following an ethnographic case study approach, an extensive pool of data was collected over a period of 15 months, representing corporate communication discourse at a major international conglomerate.
    The author completed his PhD at the University of Salford, UK, after having worked in several management positions in the financial services industry, heading an international corporate communications team for several years.

  • "Guanxi and Business Strategy" elaborates upon a topic of paramount importance to both academic scholars and managers doing business with China: the impact of personal relationships (guanxi) on business affairs. In the Chinese cultural and socio-economic environment, how are the ubiquitous practices of guanxi to be considered in entrepreneurial strategies?
    Rather than explaining the emergence of guanxi and its persistence - in spite of the existence of a market economy - with Confucianism, the author applies the phenomenon to the methodology of New Economic Sociology. By integrating guanxi into a business context, he shows that the commercial utilization of guanxi with suppliers, customers, competitors and authorities yields significant sustainable competitive advantages. As guanxi practices, however, may pose risks to unsuspecting managers, guanxi-based business strategies are also assessed in terms of compliance with legal and ethical standards.

  • Challenged by increasing competition and globalization, third party logistics service providers (3PLs) can become more successful by focusing on customer loyalty. Within long-term customer relationships, 3PLs can offer more advanced logistics services, mitigate the risk of substitution, realize higher profit margins, and avoid new customer acquisition costs. In order to effectively manage customer loyalty, 3PLs need to be aware of the factors that influence loyalty. In addition, they have to understand the effects of different relationship conditions and cultural background on loyalty formation. These issues are addressed in the present book. First, a model of customer loyalty and its determinants is developed, which is then validated using empirical data from nearly 800 logistics managers in Germany and the USA. Effects of different relational factors on the customer loyalty model are identified and cultural differences between Germany and the USA are revealed.

  • Modern Advances in Tourism Research provides a thorough assessment of state-of-the-art academic research in this recent field of economic science. The authors start by scoping the scene of tourism research, evolving then to a comprehensive analysis of themes of particular interest for researchers and academics interested on the workings of the tourism markets, such as new analysis frameworks in tourism economics and new operational tools in tourism research. With a view to go beyond fundamental research, the book closes with a chapter dedicated to applied country and regional studies, where a variety of subjects - from input-output analysis to e-tourism competitiveness - are analysed from an alternative micro-perspective.

  • Previous research on the institutional structure of franchising networks (Bri- ley et al. 1991; Lutz 1995; Shane 1998; Lafontaine and Shaw 1999, 2005; - fuso 2002; Penard et al. 2003a,b) does not explain the governance structure of the franchising firm as an institutional entity that consists of two interrelated parts: Residual decision rights and ownership rights. The latter includes not only residual income rights of franchised outlets but also residual income rights of franchisor-owned outlets. Previous studies primarily examines the incentive, signalling and screening effects of fees, royalties and other contractual pro- sions from the point of view of organizational economics (see Dnes 1996 for a review) without taking into account the interactions between residual decision and residual income rights as interrelated parts of the governance structure. This paper fills this gap in the literature. According to the property rights view, de- sion rights should be allocated according to the distribution of intangible kno- edge assets between the franchisor and franchisee and ownership rights should be assigned according to the residual decision rights. Since ownership rights are diluted in franchising networks, the dilution of residual income rights of fr- chised outlets is compensated by residual income rights of company-owned o- lets. Under a dual ownership structure, company-owned outlets compensate the disincentive effect of low royalties for the franchisor, and low royalties strengthen the investment incentives for the franchisee.

  • Corporate governance has been at the center of interest in the corporate- nance literature for the past decade. The discussion has continuously int- si?ed due to the occurrence of multiple corporate governance failures which have triggered the introduction or further re?nement of national and inter- tional corporate governance codes. The necessity of regulatory action however rests on the need for a sound understanding of potentially negative e?ects of ownership structure on ?nancial performance. Unfortunately, the empirical literature so far has not delivered consistent evidence leaving the overall e?ects still somewhat in the open. This incons- tency is argued to stem from di?erent biases in the statistical analysis, where the most important ones are the endogeneity and simultaneity bias. The - jective of this dissertation is to provide less distorted results by modelling various ownership aspects and performance simultaneously. The study sets out with a simultaneous equations analysis of the re- tionship between general ownership concentration and performance. This is followed by an examination of more speci?c ownership e?ects with a foll- up model focusing on managerial ownership and another one on institutional ownership. Subsequently, the author combines the three previous models in a ?nal comprehensive analysis which allows for the simultaneous assessment and separation of the di?erent ownership and performance e?ects. Withitsstate-of-the-artanalysis,thedissertationcontributessubstantially to the existing international empirical literature on the relationship between corporate ownership and performance. I wish for this dissertation to give impetus to and become widely accepted by corporate governance researchers and practitioners alike.

  • This book offers a comprehensive empirical analysis of continuing vocational training in Germany. Specific issues concerning continuing training that are debated in academia as well as in public are discussed. Wage and productivity effects of training are analyzed, explicitly accounting for the heterogeneity of training participants. In addition, evidence is given on whether positive externalities of continuing training exist.

  • This volume contains the proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Model-Oriented Design and Analysis. It offers leading and pioneering work on optimal experimental designs, both from a mathematical/statistical point of view and with regard to real applications. Scientists from all over the world have contributed to this volume. Primary topics are designs for nonlinear models and applications to experimental medicine.

  • This book presents findings and results from the recent European Union Company survey of Operating hours, Working times and Employment (EUCOWE) in France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom. The EUCOWE-project is the first standardised company survey covering all sizes of firms and all sectors of the economy. It is the most comprehensive analysis yet published on Operating Hours, Capacity Utilisation, Working Times and Employment in the EU.

  • A Life Cycle for Clusters?

    Kerstin Press

    • Physica
    • 5 Septembre 2006

    rium states but on the development process following an external shock, Kerstin Press adopts a new methodological approach. She develops a theoretic model of clusters, change and adaptation that is based on the N/K model of complex s- tems (Kauffman 1993). Taking the existing insight on the dynamics of N/K s- tems, propositions on the influence of cluster architecture on adaptability are - rived. In a second step, these propositions are tested by simulations comparing the adaptability of clusters with given differences in their architecture regarding the degree of division of labour on the one and the governance structure on the other hand. Both aspects (division of labour, governance) were found to matter for cl- ter adaptability in previous empirical studies but general causalities for their role in cluster adjustment could not be derived from individual case studies. Within the all else held equal perspective adopted in the simulation model, one explanation for how and when division of labour and governance matter for cluster adjustment is found. While the model faces several limitations, these are more to be seen as possible areas for future research. The present study opens up new avenues in cluster research. Rather than just focussing on emergence or existence, clusters are viewed as entities underlying a dynamic development. The analysis of their adaptability to external changes c- stitutes a first important step towards a non-deterministic perspective on cluster development.

  • Is there a chance that public or private research and development institutions can improve the efficiency of the R&D process? This book gives a positive answer by designing an integrated concept of the science technology cycle and the innovation system of each technology. The position of a new technology in the sciencetechnology cycle is identified by several indicators from patent analysis, citations and market information data. The innovation system supports the search for a comprehensive understanding of all important stakeholders of an innovation, possible obstacles and related policies. The application of the methodology leads to convincing results: the hype of the PEM fuel cell activities could have been identified at the end of the 1990s as the phase of euphoria, but not as a situation close to market entry in the car or boiler markets.

  • This book gives recommendations on which interactive decision aids to offer in webstores. Interactive decision aids are tools that help online shoppers to compare and evaluate product information. Consumers can, for instance, exclude products that do not meet certain criteria, they can highlight certain information or they can assign ratings of different kinds.  Interactive decision aids are important, because finding the preferred product in a short amount of time increases both the customers' satisfaction and, in turn, the sales volume.This book includes a detailed description of decision aids, closely studies how decision aids are related to the decision behavior of customers, and develops a comprehensive system of decision aids, which is very flexible, increases both customer satisfaction and confidence, and can be used intuitively. The close link between typical behaviors and the decision aids allows webstores to learn about customers' decision-making behavior by using a simple click stream analysis. The book is written in an easy-to-read style and provides both practical recommendations and knowledge about consumer behavior

  • Organizational Epistemology

    Kasra Seirafi

    • Physica
    • 26 Février 2013

    This book presents an in-depth perspective of knowledge as a fundamental process of any organization rather than just another resource to be managed. The author presents a process-oriented theory of creating and applying knowledge directed towards both researchers and practitioners. In this book the author develops normative knowledge management guidelines which draw from a unique view on knowledge, discussed in the field of philosophy since Plato but neglected by most knowledge management authors - by applying a philosophically grounded `social epistemology' to organizations. The guidelines in this book call for an open and reflective space of knowledge creation, aligned with goals and structures of the organization. Numerous examples, field studies, and an application to the main case study on Seven-Eleven Japan complement both the descriptive view on knowledge as well as the normative guidelines presented in this book.?

  • Monetary incentives, as a driving force for human behavior, are the main theme of this book. The primary goals underlying the application of monetary incentive systems in companies are motivating employees to strive for superior productivity in line with the interests of employers, and hiring adequately skilled employees. The first goal refers to incentive effects, the latter to sorting effects. This book introduces important theories and concepts concerning behavior under influence of monetary incentives; it reviews existing economic frameworks and identifies specific contingency variables. Based on an integrative framework of elements influencing incentive and sorting effects, a laboratory experiment is presented including detailed methodological discussion on experimentation and data analysis as well as an extensive presentation of findings and discussion of implications.?

  • Imperfections in Financial Markets.- What Can Cash Shortfalls and Windfalls Tell Us About Finance Constraints?.- Non-Tobin's q in Tests for Financial Constraints to Investment.- Cash Holdings, Firm Value and the Role of Market Imperfections. A Cross Country Analysis.- Multiple Bank Relationships and the Main Bank System: Evidence from a Matched Sample of Japanese Small Firms and Main Banks.- The Role of Fixed Assets in Reducing Asymmetric Information.- Financial Development and Long-Run Growth: Cross-Sectional Evidence Revised.- Imperfections in Real Markets.- Investment, Productivity and Employment in the Italian Economy.- The Macroeconomics of Imperfect Capital Markets: Whither Saving-Investment Imbalances?.- The Effects of Uncertainty and Sunk Costs on Firms' Decision-Making: Evidence from Net Entry, Industry Structure and Investment Dynamics.- Investment and Trade Patterns in a Sticky-Price, Open-Economy Model.- The Anticompetitive Effects of the Antitrust Policy.

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