Springer

  • Micro Cogeneration

    Collectif

    • Springer
    • 16 Janvier 2006

    The electricity systems of many countries are currently undergoing a process of transformation. Market liberalization has induced major mergers and acquisitions in the electricity sector, but has also forced companies to seek out new business areas. Environmental regulations, like the Kyoto process and the European Emissions Trading Scheme, are exposing the sector to external pressure. New technologies - such as renewable energy, combined heat and power (CHP), or "clean coal" technologies - are emerging. Recent worldwide experiences with blackouts have once more put security of supply on the agenda. In Germany, the nuclear phase-out and decommissioning of outdated coal plants will lead to a need for replacement of more than one third of the current generation capacity by 2020. The need for replacement is an extremely important driving force for the current transformation, forcing conventional and new technologies to compete for a role in the future energy supply. The overall transformation of electricity systems is neither driven nor shaped by technical or societal modifications alone, but rather by a rich diversity of processes in the realms of technology, politics, society and economy.

  • Flexible-electronics is rapidly finding many main-stream applications where low-cost, ruggedness, light weight, unconventional form factors and ease of manufacturability are just some of the important advantages over their conventional rigid-substrate counterparts. Flexible Electronics: Materials and Applications surveys the materials systems and processes that are used to fabricate devices that can be employed in a wide variety of applications, including flexible flat-panel displays, medical image sensors, photovoltaics, and electronic paper. Materials discussed range from polymeric semiconductors to nanotube transparent conductors, highlighting the important characteristics of each system and their target applications. An overview of the performance benchmarks for the different materials is given in order to allow a direct comparison of these different technologies. Furthermore, the devices and processes most suitable for given applications in flexible electronics are identified.
    Topics covered include:


    An overview and history of flexible electronics


    Novel materials for solution-processable thin-film electronic devices and their properties


    Low-temperature processing of conventional materials and devices on plastic foils


    Novel techniques, such as printing and roll-to-roll processing, for large-area flexible electronics manufacturing


    Materials and device physics relevant to flexible electronics


    Device integration on flexible substrates


    Mechanical and electronic characteristics for thin-film transistors and nano-scale transparent conductors on flexible platforms


    Applications towards flexible displays, sensors, actuators, solar energy, radio-frequency identification, and micro-electro-mechanical systems


    Written by leading researchers in the field, Flexible Electronics: Materials and Applications serves as a reference for researchers, engineers, and students interested in the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of these exciting materials and emerging applications.

  • Authored by a ranking authority in Gaussian harmonic analysis, this book embodies a state-of-the-art entrée at the intersection of two important fields of research: harmonic analysis and  probability. The book is intended for a very diverse audience, from graduate students all the way to researchers working in a broad spectrum of areas in analysis. Written with the graduate student in mind, it is assumed that the reader has familiarity with the basics of real analysis as well as with classical harmonic analysis, including Calderón-Zygmund theory; also some knowledge of basic orthogonal polynomials theory would be convenient. The monograph  develops the main topics of classical harmonic analysis (semigroups, covering lemmas, maximal functions, Littlewood-Paley functions, spectral multipliers, fractional integrals and fractional derivatives, singular integrals) with respect to the Gaussian measure. The text provide an updated exposition, as self-contained as possible, of all the topics in Gaussian harmonic analysis that up to now are mostly scattered in research papers and sections of books; also an exhaustive bibliography for further reading.  Each chapter ends with a section of notes and further results where connections between Gaussian harmonic analysis and other connected fields, points of view and alternative techniques are given. Mathematicians and researchers in several areas will find the breadth and depth of the treatment of the subject highly useful.

  • Relative entropy has played a significant role in various fields of mathematics and physics as the quantum version of the Kullback-Leibler divergence in classical theory. Many variations of relative entropy have been introduced so far with applications to quantum information and related subjects. Typical examples are three different classes, called the standard, the maximal, and the measured f-divergences, all of which are defined in terms of (operator) convex functions f on (0,8) and have respective mathematical and information theoretical backgrounds. The a-Rényi relative entropy and its new version called the sandwiched a-Rényi relative entropy have also been useful in recent developments of quantum information.
    In the first half of this monograph, the different types of quantum f-divergences and the Rényi-type divergences mentioned above in the general von Neumann algebra setting are presented for study. While quantum information has been developing mostly in the finite-dimensional setting, it is widely believed that von Neumann algebras provide the most suitable framework in studying quantum information and related subjects. Thus, the advance of quantum divergences in von Neumann algebras will be beneficial for further development of quantum information. 
    Quantum divergences are functions of two states (or more generally, two positive linear functionals) on a quantum system and measure the difference between the two states. They are often utilized to address such problems as state discrimination, error correction, and reversibility of quantum operations. In the second half of the monograph, the reversibility/sufficiency theory for quantum operations (quantum channels) between von Neumann algebras via quantum f-divergences is explained, thus extending and strengthening Petz' previous work.
    For the convenience of the reader, an appendix including concise accounts of von Neumann algebras is provided.

  • The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
    Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
    Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures. 

  • This monograph focuses on the mathematical and numerical analysis of simplicial partitions and the finite element method. This active area of research has become an essential part of physics and engineering, for example in the study of problems involving heat conduction, linear elasticity, semiconductors, Maxwell's equations, Einstein's equations and magnetic and gravitational fields.
    These problems require the simulation of various phenomena and physical fields over complicated structures in three (and higher) dimensions. Since not all structures can be decomposed into simpler objects like d-dimensional rectangular blocks, simplicial partitions are important. In this book an emphasis is placed on angle conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the finite element method for elliptic PDEs with given boundary conditions. 
    It is aimed at a general mathematical audience who is assumed to be familiar with only a few basic results from linear algebra, geometry, and mathematical and numerical analysis. 

  • This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
    its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.

  • This book provides a  concise introduction to convex duality in financial mathematics. Convex duality plays an essential role in dealing with financial problems and involves maximizing concave utility functions and minimizing convex risk measures. Recently, convex and generalized convex dualities have shown to be crucial in the process of the dynamic hedging of contingent claims. Common underlying principles and connections between different perspectives are developed; results are illustrated through graphs and explained heuristically. This book can be used as a reference and is aimed toward graduate students, researchers and practitioners in mathematics, finance, economics, and optimization. Topics include: Markowitz portfolio theory, growth portfolio theory, fundamental theorem of asset pricing emphasizing the duality between utility optimization and pricing by martingale measures, risk measures and its dual representation, hedging and super-hedging and its relationship with linear programming duality and the duality relationship in dynamic hedging of contingent claims

  • This book expands on the classical statistical multivariate analysis theory by focusing on bilinear regression models, a class of models comprising the classical growth curve model and its extensions. In order to analyze the bilinear regression models in an interpretable way, concepts from linear models are extended and applied to tensor spaces. Further, the book considers decompositions of tensor products into natural subspaces, and addresses maximum likelihood estimation, residual analysis, influential observation analysis and testing hypotheses, where properties of estimators such as moments, asymptotic distributions or approximations of distributions are also studied. Throughout the text, examples and several analyzed data sets illustrate the different approaches, and fresh insights into classical multivariate analysis are provided. This monograph is of interest to researchers and Ph.D. students in mathematical statistics, signal processing and other fields where statistical multivariate analysis is utilized. It can also be used as a text for second graduate-level courses on multivariate analysis.

  • Bimetallic nanoparticles, also called nanoalloys, are at the heart of nanoscience because of their ability to tune together composition and size for specific purposes. By approaching both their physical and chemical properties, Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties provides a comprehensive reference to this research field in nanoscience by addressing the subject from both experimental and theoretical points of view, providing chapters across three main topics:
    Growth and structural properties
    Thermodynamics and electronic structure of nanoalloys
    Magnetic, optic and catalytic propertiesThe growth and elaboration processes which are the necessary and crucial part of any experimental approach are detailed in the first chapter. Three chapters are focused on the widely used characterization techniques sensitive to both the structural arrangements and chemistry of nanoalloys. The electronic structure of nanoalloys is described as a guide of useful concepts and theoretical tools.  Chapters covering thermodynamics begin with bulk alloys, going to nanoalloys via surfaces in order to describe chemical order/disorder, segregation and phase transitions in reduced dimension. Finally, the optical, magnetic and catalytic properties are discussed by focusing on nanoparticles formed with one element to track the modifications which occur when forming nanoalloys. The range and detail of Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties makes it an ideal resource for postgraduates and researchers working in the field of nanoscience looking to expand and support their knowledge of nanoalloys.

  • Forewords by Claes-Göran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden, and Neal F. Lane, Rice University, TexasNanomaterials inevitably have bright prospects, but even now they play an important role in many areas of industry. Some of these new materials are commercially available and are used in off the shelf products, others are important model systems for physicochemical and materials science research. However, research findings and application data are not compiled in a single work. The Springer Handbook of Nanomaterials collects description and data of materials which have dimensions on the nanoscale. The description of nanomaterials follows the interplay of structure, properties, processing and applications mainly in their solid phase. The chapters were arranged according to the classical materials-science classifications: carbon materials, metals, ceramics, composites, and biomaterials. For each part, materials structures represent different dimensionality; zero-dimensional clusters, nanoparticles and quantum dots, one-dimensional nanowires and nanotubes, and two-dimensional thin films and surfaces. Combinations cover for instance nanostructured and hybrid materials. Almost 100 leading scientists from academia and the industry were selected to write the 32 chapters and collect the physical, chemical and mechanical data. The handbook was written and compiled for professionals and practitioners, materials scientists, physicists and chemists at universities, as well as in the fields of industrial research and production.The Handbook is organized in seven parts. Part A: NanoCarbons. Part B: NanoMetals. Part C: NanoCeramics. Part D: NanoComposits. Part E: Nanoporous Materials. Part F: Organic and Biomaterilas. Part G: Applications and Impact.  

  • Ocular infections remain an important cause of ocular morbidity and loss of vision, yet many are preventable or curable. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment help in the control of such infectious disorders and the prevention of blindness. There are many infectious diseases of the eye and adnexa and knowledge of their diagnosis and management is essential to an optimal therapeutic outcome.This book provides the practitioner with the important information required to ensure appropriate diagnosis and management of ocular infectious diseases. Specific clinical signs and symptoms are outlined, and the role of specific diagnostic tests, including molecular biology techniques, is explained. All of the most common microorganisms are considered and current knowledge on the antimicrobial therapy of ocular infections is clearly summarized. Ocular Infections will be a great help to physicians as a guide to the care of patients with ocular infectious diseases.

  • The Enhancing Diversity in Graduate Education (EDGE) Program began twenty years ago to provide support for women entering doctoral programs in the mathematical sciences. With a steadfast commitment to diversity among participants, faculty, and staff, EDGE initially alternated between Bryn Mawr and Spelman Colleges. In later years, EDGE has been hosted on campuses around the nation and expanded to offer support for women throughout their graduate school and professional careers. The refereed papers in A Celebration of the EDGE Program's Impact on the Mathematics Community and Beyond range from short memoirs, to pedagogical studies, to current mathematics research. All papers are written by former EDGE participants, mentors, instructors, directors, and others connected to EDGE. Together, these papers offer compelling testimony that EDGE has produced a diverse new generation of leaders in the mathematics community. This volume contains technical and non-technical works, and it is intended for a far-reaching audience, including mathematicians, mathematics teachers, diversity officers, university administrators, government employees writing educational or science policy, and mathematics students at the high school, college, and graduate levels. By highlighting the scope of the work done by those supported by EDGE, the volume offers strong evidence of the American Mathematical Society's recognition that EDGE is "a program that makes a difference."
    This volume offers unique testimony that a 20-year old summer program has expanded its reach beyond the summer experience to produce a diverse new generation of women leaders, nearly half of whom are underrepresented women. While some books with a women-in-math theme focus only on one topic such as research or work-life balance, this book's broad scope includes papers on mathematics research, teaching, outreach, and career paths. 

  • Over the past 25 years, Carleman estimates have become an essential tool in several areas related to partial differential equations such as control theory, inverse problems, or fluid mechanics. This book provides a detailed exposition of the basic techniques of Carleman Inequalities, driven by applications to various questions of unique continuation.
    Beginning with an elementary introduction to the topic, including examples accessible to readers without prior knowledge of advanced mathematics, the book's first five chapters contain a thorough exposition of the most classical results, such as Calderón's and Hrmander's theorems. Later chapters explore a selection of results of the last four decades around the themes of continuation for elliptic equations, with the Jerison-Kenig estimates for strong unique continuation, counterexamples to Cauchy uniqueness of Cohen and Alinhac & Baouendi, operators with partially analytic coefficients with intermediate results between Holmgren's and Hrmander's uniqueness theorems, Wolff's modification of Carleman's method, conditional pseudo-convexity, and more.
    With examples and special cases motivating the general theory, as well as appendices on mathematical background, this monograph provides an accessible, self-contained basic reference on the subject, including a selection of the developments of the past thirty years in unique continuation.

  • This book series focuses on current progress in the broad field of medical microbiology, and covers both basic and applied topics related to the study of microbes, their interactions with human and animals, and emerging issues relevant for public health. Original research and review articles present and discuss multidisciplinary findings and developments on various aspects of microbiology, infectious diseases, and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention.


  • Anglais Flowering Plants. Eudicots

    Klaus Kubitzki

    • Springer
    • 10 Décembre 2010

    This volume, the tenth in the series, comprises modern treatments for the families and genera of the eudicot orders Sapindales and Cucurbitales. The circumscription of the orders, families and genera conforms to the most recent systematic studies. The family treatments include descriptions of the families and the genera, genera classification keys, discussions of relationships and data on their morphology, reproductive biology, distribution, ecology and economic importance.
    Sapindales and Cucurbitales, as understood in this volume, comprise 16 families with 637 genera and roughly 9,240 species. Sapindales include large tropical and southern temperate tree families such as the Anacardiaceae, Sapindaceae (these in the modern circumscription, which includes Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae), Meliaceae and Rutaceae, which have long been considered to be closely related. Cucurbitales represent a relatively new ordinal concept; apart from some small woody groups, the order contains two large families, Cucurbitaceae and Begoniaceae, which are predominantly, and likely basically, herbaceous.
    A detailed treatment of the tropical and southern temperate woody family Myrtaceae (itself comprising 142 genera and 6,700 species) is an addendum to the treatment of the Myrtales in Vol. IX of this series.

  • Why aren't we investing more in disaster resilience, despite the rising costs of disaster events? This book argues that decision-makers in governments, businesses, households, and development agencies tend to focus on avoiding losses from disasters, and perceive the return on investment as uncertain - only realised if a somewhat unlikely disaster event actually happens.  This book develops a new business case for investment based on the multiple dividends of resilience. This looks beyond only avoided losses (the first dividend) to the wider benefits gained independently of whether or not the disaster event occurs. These include unleashing entrepreneurial activities and productive investments by lowering the looming threat of losses from disasters and enabling businesses, farmers and homeowners to take positive risks (the second dividend); and co-benefits of resilience measures beyond just disaster risk (the third dividend), such as flood embankments in Bangladesh that double as roads, or wetlands in Colombo that reduce urban heat extremes.

  • Applications and Devices.- MEMS-Based Thin Film and Resonant Chemical Sensors.- Microactuators Based on Thin Films.- Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers and Acoustic Sensors Based on Piezoelectric Thin Films.- Thick-Film Piezoelectric and Magnetostrictive Devices.- Micromachined Infrared Detectors Based on Pyroelectric Thin Films.- RF Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonators and Filters.- High Frequency Tuneable Devices Based on Thin Ferroelectric Films.- MEMS for Optical Functionality.- Materials, Fabrication-Technology, and Functionality.- Ceramic Thick Films for MEMS.- Thin Film Piezoelectrics for MEMS.- Science and Technology of High Dielectric Constant Thin Films and Materials Integration for Application to High Frequency Devices.- Permittivity, Tunability and Loss in Ferroelectrics for Reconfigurable High Frequency Electronics.- Microfabrication of Piezoelectric MEMS.- Non-Conventional Micro- and Nanopatterning Techniques for Electroceramics.- Low-Cost Patterning of Ceramic Thin Films.

  • Allemand Coaching Theorie

    Michael Loebbert

    Dieses Buch räumt das herrschende Durcheinander von Ansätzen und Perspektiven im Coaching systematisch auf. Coaches, die auf Augenhhe arbeiten, knnen ihren Klienten und Kunden darstellen, was sie wie und warum anbieten und tun. Im Kontext beraterischer Handlungstheorie erweist sich Vieles als haltbar: Lsungs- und Ressourcenorientierung, systemische Interventionsgestaltung, Prozessberatung, narratives Coaching, psychodynamische Ansätze, Coaching als Dienstleistung. Dieses Buch bündelt die Vielzahl an Ansätzen und trägt zur weiteren Entwicklung von Coaching-Praxis, -Weiterbildung und -Forschung bei.

  • Anglais Phytoremediation

    Collectif

    This text details the plant-assisted remediation method, "phytoremediation", which involves the interaction of plant roots and associated rhizospheric microorganisms for the remediation of soil contaminated with high levels of metals, pesticides, solvents, radionuclides, explosives, crude oil, organic compounds and various other contaminants. Many chapters highlight and compare the efficiency and economic advantages of phytoremediation to currently practiced soil and water treatment practices.
    Volume 5 of Phytoremediation: Management of Environmental Contaminants provides the capstone of the series. Taken together, the five volumes provide a broad-based global synopsis of the current applications of phytoremediation using plants and the microbial communities associated with their roots to decontaminate terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 

  • International Kimberlite Conferences (IKCs) are special events that are held across the world once in four to five years. IKC is the confluence platform for academicians, scientists and industrial personnel concerned with diamond exploration and exploitation, petrology, geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics and origin of the primary diamond host rocks and their entrained xenoliths and xenocrysts (including diamond) to get together and deliberate on new advances in research made in the intervening years. Ever since the organization of first IKC in 1973 and its tremendous success, the entire geological world eagerly look forward to subsequent such conferences with great enthusiasm and excitement. The scientific emanations from IKCs continue to make significant impact on our understanding of the composition, nature and evolution of the planet we live on. The previous conferences were held at Cape Town (1973), Santa Fe, New Mexico (1977), Clermont-Ferrand, France, (1982). Perth, Western Australia (1987), Araxa, Brazil (1991), Novosibirsk, Russia (1995), Cape Town (1998), Victoria, Canada (2003) and Frankfurt, Germany (2008). The tenth IKC was held at Bangalore, India between 5th and 11th February 2012. The conference was organized by the Geological Society of India in association with the government organizations, academic institutions and Indian diamond mining companies. About 300 delegates from 36 countries attended the conference and 224 papers were presented. The papers include 78 oral presentations and 146 poster presentations on following topics: Kimberlite geology, origin, evolution and emplacement of kimberlites and related rocks, petrology and geochemistry of metasomatised lithospheric mantle magmas, diamond exploration, cratonic roots, diamonds, diamond mining and sustainable developments and policies and governance of diamond exploration. Pre- and post-conference field trips were organized to (i) the diamond bearing kimberlites of Dharwar Craton in South India, (ii) lamproites of Bundelkhand Craton in northern India and (iii) diamond cutting and polishing industry of Surat, Gujarat in western India. A series of social and cultural programmes depicting cultural diversity of India were organized during the conference. The Kimberlite fraternity enjoyed yet another socially and scientifically successful conference.

  • Urban agriculture has the potential to change our food systems, enhance habitat in our cities, and to morph urban areas into regions that maximize rather than disrupt ecosystem services. The potential impacts of urban agriculture on a range of ecosystem services including soil and water conservation, waste recycling, climate change mitigation, habitat, and food production is only beginning to be recognized. Those impacts are the focus of this book. Growing food in cities can range from a tomato plant on a terrace to a commercial farm on an abandoned industrial site. Understanding the benefits of these activities across scales will help this movement flourish. Food can be grown in community gardens, on roofs, in abandoned industrial sites and next to sidewalks. The volume includes sections on where to grow food and how to integrate agriculture into municipal zoning and legal frameworks.

  • The landscape and vegetation of the Dolomites have characteristics that are very particular. Some 2300 species live here, about a fifth of the flora in Europe as a whole. This book depicts what the plant cover of the Dolomites is composed of, how it was formed, and what future evolution may bring. The data presented is based on the authors' combined botanical research, which consists of thousands of surveys throughout the entire region of the Dolomites.To explain the vegetation, 106 plant communities are described in detailed datasheets. Biological, geological, climatic and physical-chemical parameters are given for each plant community, including a description of the habitat, the indicator species, the floristic composition, distribution, conservation, and alteration risks, as well as a distribution map and a photo of the association. The associations are grouped into habitats, such as the human habitat, natural forests and meadows on the valley floor, the coniferous forest belt, screes, alpine vegetation on granite, porphyry, and volcanic rock, as well as on dolomite and limestones. In closing, the authors make a case for using the scientific information provided in the book for the conservation of the Dolomites, the heritage of all humanity. Additional in-depth analysis will be presented in the supplementary volumes "Plant Life of the Dolomites: Vegetation Tables" and "Plant Life of the Dolomites: Atlas of Flora."

  • This book critically reflects on the context in which lifelong learning policies and practices are organized in Europe with contributions of researchers and policy makers in the field. Through a critical lens the book reinterprets the core content of the messages that are conveyed by the European Commission in the "Memorandum for Lifelong Learning", the most important policy document in the area, which after a decade from its publication still remains the vehicle for all current developments in lifelong learning in Europe. With references to research findings, proposed actions, and applications to immediate practice that have an added value for Europeans -but which either do not appear to correspond directly to what is stipulated by the European Commission, or are completely ignored as part of the lifelong learning process- the book offers an analytic and systematic outlook of the main challenges in creating the `European Area of Lifelong Learning'. In times as decisive as the ones we are going through today (both in social and economic terms), a critical perspective of the practices and policies adopted by the EU Member States is essential. The book follows the same structure as the Memorandum in order to debate and critically approach in separate sections the core issues that Europe faces today in relation to the idea of making a `European area of Lifelong Learning'. ?

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