This volume provides a detailed description of some of the most active areas in astrophysics from the largest scales probed by the Planck satellite to massive black holes that lie at the heart of galaxies and up to the much awaited but stunning discovery of thousands of exoplanets. It contains the following chapters:
o Jean-Philippe UZAN, The Big-Bang Theory: Construction, Evolution and Status
o Jean-Loup PUGET, The Planck Mission and the Cosmic Microwave Background
o Reinhard GENZEL, Massive Black Holes: Evidence, Demographics and Cosmic Evolution
o Arnaud CASSAN, New Worlds Ahead: The Discovery of Exoplanets
Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez shared the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy'", alongside Roger Penrose "for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity". The book corresponds to the twentieth Poincaré Seminar, held on November 21, 2015, at Institut Henri Poincaré in Paris.
Originally written as lectures to a broad scientific audience, these four chapters are of high value and will be of general interest to astrophysicists, physicists, mathematicians and historians.
This monograph presents recent results concerning nonlinear fractional elliptic problems in the whole space. More precisely, it investigates the existence, multiplicity and qualitative properties of solutions for fractional Schrdinger equations by applying suitable variational and topological methods.The book is mainly intended for researchers in pure and applied mathematics, physics, mechanics, and engineering. However, the material will also be useful for students in higher semesters and young researchers, as well as experienced specialists working in the field of nonlocal PDEs. This is the first book to approach fractional nonlinear Schrdinger equations by applying variational and topological methods.
In this set of lecture notes, the author includes some of the latest research on the theory of Morrey Spaces associated with Harmonic Analysis. There are three main claims concerning these spaces that are covered: determining the integrability classes of the trace of Riesz potentials of an arbitrary Morrey function; determining the dimensions of singular sets of weak solutions of PDE (e.g. The Meyers-Elcart System); and determining whether there are any "full" interpolation results for linear operators between Morrey spaces. This book will serve as a useful reference to graduate students and researchers interested in Potential Theory, Harmonic Analysis, PDE, and/or Morrey Space Theory.
One of the world's foremost geometers, Alan Weinstein has made deep contributions to symplectic and differential geometry, Lie theory, mechanics, and related fields. Written in his honor, the invited papers in this volume reflect the active and vibrant research in these areas and are a tribute to Weinstein's ongoing influence.
The well-recognized contributors to this text cover a broad range of topics: Induction and reduction for systems with symmetry, symplectic geometry and topology, geometric quantization, the Weinstein Conjecture, Poisson algebra and geometry, Dirac structures, deformations for Lie group actions, Kähler geometry of moduli spaces, theory and applications of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics and dynamics, symplectic and Poisson groupoids, and quantum representations.
Intended for graduate students and working mathematicians in symplectic and Poisson geometry as well as mechanics, this text is a distillation of prominent research and an indication of the future trends and directions in geometry, mechanics, and mathematical physics.
Contributors: H. Bursztyn, M. Cahen, M. Crainic, J. J. Duistermaat, K. Ehlers, S. Evens, V. L. Ginzburg, A. B. Givental, S. Gutt, D. D. Holm, J. Huebschmann, L. Jeffrey, F. Kirwan, M. Kogan, J. Koiller, Y. Kosmann-Schwarzbach, B. Kostant, C. Laurent-Gengoux, J-H. Lu, J. E. Marsden, K. C. H. Mackenzie, Y. Maeda, C-M. Marle, T. E. Milanov, N. Miyazaki, R. Montgomery, Y-G. Oh, J-P. Ortega, H. Omori, T. S. Ratiu, P. M. Rios, L. Schwachhfer, J. Stasheff, I. Vaisman, A. Yoshioka, P. Xu, and S. Zelditch.
The work on Autonomic Road Transport Support (ARTS) presented here aims at meeting the challenge of engineering autonomic behavior in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) by fusing research from the disciplines of traffic engineering and autonomic computing. Ideas and techniques from leading edge artificial intelligence research have been adapted for ITS over the last 30 years. Examples include adaptive control embedded in real time traffic control systems, heuristic algorithms (e.g. in SAT-NAV systems), image processing and computer vision (e.g. in automated surveillance interpretation). Autonomic computing which is inspired from the biological example of the body's autonomic nervous system is a more recent development. It allows for a more efficient management of heterogeneous distributed computing systems. In the area of computing, autonomic systems are endowed with a number of properties that are generally referred to as self-X properties, including self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimization, self-protection and more generally self-management. Some isolated examples of autonomic properties such as self-adaptation have found their way into ITS technology and have already proved beneficial. This edited volume provides a comprehensive introduction to Autonomic Road Transport Support (ARTS) and describes the development of ARTS systems. It starts out with the visions, opportunities and challenges, then presents the foundations of ARTS and the platforms and methods used and it closes with experiences from real-world applications and prototypes of emerging applications. This makes it suitable for researchers and practitioners in the fields of autonomic computing, traffic and transport management and engineering, AI, and software engineering. Graduate students will benefit from state-of-the-art description, the study of novel methods and the case studies provided.
This book is an extension to Arno van den Essen's Polynomial Automorphisms and the Jacobian Conjecture published in 2000. Many new exciting results have been obtained in the past two decades, including the solution of Nagata's Conjecture, the complete solution of Hilbert's fourteenth problem, the equivalence of the Jacobian Conjecture and the Dixmier Conjecture, the symmetric reduction of the Jacobian Conjecture, the theory of Mathieu-Zhao spaces and counterexamples to the Cancellation problem in positive characteristic. These and many more results are discussed in detail in this work.
The book is aimed at graduate students and researchers in the field of Affine Algebraic Geometry. Exercises are included at the end of each section.
This book demonstrates the influence of geometry on the qualitative behaviour of solutions of quasilinear PDEs on Riemannian manifolds. Motivated by examples arising, among others, from the theory of submanifolds, the authors study classes of coercive elliptic differential inequalities on domains of a manifold M with very general nonlinearities depending on the variable x, on the solution u and on its gradient. The book highlights the mean curvature operator and its variants, and investigates the validity of strong maximum principles, compact support principles and Liouville type theorems. In particular, it identifies sharp thresholds involving curvatures or volume growth of geodesic balls in M to guarantee the above properties under appropriate Keller-Osserman type conditions, which are investigated in detail throughout the book, and discusses the geometric reasons behind the existence of such thresholds. Further, the book also provides a unified review of recent results in the literature, and creates a bridge with geometry by studying the validity of weak and strong maximum principles at infinity, in the spirit of Omori-Yau's Hessian and Laplacian principles and subsequent improvements.
This monograph explores applications of Carleman estimates in the study of stabilization and controllability properties of partial differential equations, including quantified unique continuation, logarithmic stabilization of the wave equation, and null-controllability of the heat equation. Where the first volume derived these estimates in regular open sets in Euclidean space and Dirichlet boundary conditions, here they are extended to Riemannian manifolds and more general boundary conditions.
The book begins with the study of Lopatinskii-Sapiro boundary conditions for the Laplace-Beltrami operator, followed by derivation of Carleman estimates for this operator on Riemannian manifolds. Applications of Carleman estimates are explored next: quantified unique continuation issues, a proof of the logarithmic stabilization of the boundary-damped wave equation, and a spectral inequality with general boundary conditions to derive the null-controllability result for the heat equation. Two additional chapters consider some more advanced results on Carleman estimates. The final part of the book is devoted to exposition of some necessary background material: elements of differential and Riemannian geometry, and Sobolev spaces and Laplace problems on Riemannian manifolds.
The theory of real-valued Sobolev functions is a classical part of analysis and has a wide range of applications in pure and applied mathematics. By contrast, the study of manifold-valued Sobolev maps is relatively new. The incentive to explore these spaces arose in the last forty years from geometry and physics. This monograph is the first to provide a unified, comprehensive treatment of Sobolev maps to the circle, presenting numerous results obtained by the authors and others. Many surprising connections to other areas of mathematics are explored, including the Monge-Kantorovich theory in optimal transport, items in geometric measure theory, Fourier series, and non-local functionals occurring, for example, as denoising filters in image processing. Numerous digressions provide a glimpse of the theory of sphere-valued Sobolev maps.
Each chapter focuses on a single topic and starts with a detailed overview, followed by the most significant results, and rather complete proofs. The "Complements and Open Problems" sections provide short introductions to various subsequent developments or related topics, and suggest newdirections of research. Historical perspectives and a comprehensive list of references close out each chapter. Topics covered include lifting, point and line singularities, minimal connections and minimal surfaces, uniqueness spaces, factorization, density, Dirichlet problems, trace theory, and gap phenomena.
Sobolev Maps to the Circle will appeal to mathematicians working in various areas, such as nonlinear analysis, PDEs, geometric analysis, minimal surfaces, optimal transport, and topology. It will also be of interest to physicists working on liquid crystals and the Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductors.
This book is concerned with the study in two dimensions of stationary solutions of u? of a complex valued Ginzburg-Landau equation involving a small parameter ?. Such problems are related to questions occurring in physics, e.g., phase transition phenomena in superconductors and superfluids. The parameter ? has a dimension of a length which is usually small. Thus, it is of great interest to study the asymptotics as ? tends to zero. One of the main results asserts that the limit u-star of minimizers u? exists. Moreover, u-star is smooth except at a finite number of points called defects or vortices in physics. The number of these defects is exactly the Brouwer degree - or winding number - of the boundary condition. Each singularity has degree one - or as physicists would say, vortices are quantized. The material presented in this book covers mostly original results by the authors. It assumes a moderate knowledge of nonlinear functional analysis, partial differential equations, and complex functions. This book is designed for researchers and graduate students alike, and can be used as a one-semester text. The present softcover reprint is designed to make this classic text available to a wider audience.
This book has two main objectives, the first of which is to extend the power of numerical Fourier analysis and to show by means of theoretical examples and numerous concrete applications that when computing discrete Fourier transforms of periodic and non periodic functions, the usual kernel matrix of the Fourier transform, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), should be replaced by another kernel matrix, the eXtended Fourier transform (XFT), since the XFT matrix appears as a convergent quadrature of a more general transform, the fractional Fourier transform.
In turn, the book's second goal is to present the XFT matrix as a finite-dimensional transformation that links certain discrete operators in the same way that the corresponding continuous operators are related by the Fourier transform, and to show that the XFT matrix accordingly generates sequences of matrix operators that represent continuum operators, and which allow these operators to be studied from another perspective.
Transmutation operators in differential equations and spectral theory can be used to reveal the relations between different problems, and often make it possible to transform difficult problems into easier ones. Accordingly, they represent an important mathematical tool in the theory of inverse and scattering problems, of ordinary and partial differential equations, integral transforms and equations, special functions, harmonic analysis, potential theory, and generalized analytic functions. This volume explores recent advances in the construction and applications of transmutation operators, while also sharing some interesting historical notes on the subject.
This is a study of algebraic differential modules in several variables, and of some of their relations with analytic differential modules. Let us explain its source. The idea of computing the cohomology of a manifold, in particular its Betti numbers, by means of differential forms goes back to E. Cartan and G. De Rham. In the case of a smooth complex algebraic variety X, there are three variants: i) using the De Rham complex of algebraic differential forms on X, ii) using the De Rham complex of holomorphic differential forms on the analytic an manifold X underlying X, iii) using the De Rham complex of Coo complex differential forms on the differ entiable manifold Xdlf underlying Xan. These variants tum out to be equivalent. Namely, one has canonical isomorphisms of hypercohomology: While the second isomorphism is a simple sheaf-theoretic consequence of the Poincare lemma, which identifies both vector spaces with the complex cohomology H (XtoP, C) of the topological space underlying X, the first isomorphism is a deeper result of A. Grothendieck, which shows in particular that the Betti numbers can be computed algebraically. This result has been generalized by P. Deligne to the case of nonconstant coeffi cients: for any algebraic vector bundle .M on X endowed with an integrable regular connection, one has canonical isomorphisms The notion of regular connection is a higher dimensional generalization of the classical notion of fuchsian differential equations (only regular singularities).
The chapters in this timely volume aim to answer the growing interest in Arthur Schopenhauer's logic, mathematics, and philosophy of language by comprehensively exploring his work on mathematical evidence, logic diagrams, and problems of semantics. Thus, this work addresses the lack of research on these subjects in the context of Schopenhauer's oeuvre by exposing their links to modern research areas, such as the "proof without words" movement, analytic philosophy and diagrammatic reasoning, demonstrating its continued relevance to current discourse on logic. Beginning with Schopenhauer's philosophy of language, the chapters examine the individual aspects of his semantics, semiotics, translation theory, language criticism, and communication theory. Additionally, Schopenhauer's anticipation of modern contextualism is analyzed. The second section then addresses his logic, examining proof theory, metalogic, system of natural deduction, conversion theory, logical geometry, and the history of logic. Special focus is given to the role of the Euler diagrams used frequently in his lectures and their significance to broader context of his logic. In the final section, chapters discuss Schopenhauer's philosophy of mathematics while synthesizing all topics from the previous sections, emphasizing the relationship between intuition and concept. Aimed at a variety of academics, including researchers of Schopenhauer, philosophers, historians, logicians, mathematicians, and linguists, this title serves as a unique and vital resource for those interested in expanding their knowledge of Schopenhauer's work as it relates to modern mathematical and logical study.
This book presents a printed testimony for the fact that George Andrews, one of the world's leading experts in partitions and q-series for the last several decades, has passed the milestone age of 80. To honor George Andrews on this occasion, the conference "Combinatory Analysis 2018" was organized at the Pennsylvania State University from June 21 to 24, 2018.
This volume comprises the original articles from the Special Issue "Combinatory Analysis 2018 - In Honor of George Andrews' 80th Birthday" resulting from the conference and published in Annals of Combinatorics.
In addition to the 37 articles of the Andrews 80 Special Issue, the book includes two new papers. These research contributions explore new grounds and present new achievements, research trends, and problems in the area.
The volume is complemented by three special personal contributions: "The Worlds of George Andrews, a daughter's take" by Amy Alznauer, "My association and collaboration with George Andrews" by Krishna Alladi, and "Ramanujan, his Lost Notebook, its importance" by Bruce Berndt.
Another aspect which gives this Andrews volume a truly unique character is the "Photos" collection.
In addition to pictures taken at "Combinatory Analysis 2018", the editors selected a variety of photos, many of them not available elsewhere: "Andrews in Austria", "Andrews in China", "Andrews in Florida", "Andrews in Illinois", and "Andrews in India". This volume will be of interest to researchers, PhD students, and interested practitioners working in the area of Combinatory Analysis, q-Series, and related fields.
This book considers dynamic boundary value problems in domains with singularities of two types. The first type consists of "edges" of various dimensions on the boundary; in particular, polygons, cones, lenses, polyhedra are domains of this type. Singularities of the second type are "singularly perturbed edges" such as smoothed corners and edges and small holes. A domain with singularities of such type depends on a small parameter, whereas the boundary of the limit domain (as the parameter tends to zero) has usual edges, i.e. singularities of the first type. In the transition from the limit domain to the perturbed one, the boundary near a conical point or an edge becomes smooth, isolated singular points become small cavities, and so on.
In an "irregular" domain with such singularities, problems of elastodynamics, electrodynamics and some other dynamic problems are discussed. The purpose is to describe the asymptotics of solutions near singularities of the boundary.
The presented results and methods have a wide range of applications in mathematical physics and engineering. The book is addressed to specialists in mathematical physics, partial differential equations, and asymptotic methods.
The book serves as a synergistic link between the development of mathematical models and the emergence of stochastic (Monte Carlo) methods applied for the simulation of current transport in electronic devices. Regarding the models, the historical evolution path, beginning from the classical charge carrier transport models for microelectronics to current quantum-based nanoelectronics, is explicatively followed. Accordingly, the solution methods are elucidated from the early phenomenological single particle algorithms applicable for stationary homogeneous physical conditions up to the complex algorithms required for quantum transport, based on particle generation and annihilation. The book fills the gap between monographs focusing on the development of the theory and the physical aspects of models, their application, and their solution methods and monographs dealing with the purely theoretical approaches for finding stochastic solutions of Fredholm integral equations.
This contributed volume presents some of the latest research related to model order reduction of complex dynamical systems with a focus on time-dependent problems. Chapters are written by leading researchers and users of model order reduction techniques and are based on presentations given at the 2019 edition of the workshop series Model Reduction of Complex Dynamical Systems - MODRED, held at the University of Graz in Austria. The topics considered can be divided into five categories:
system-theoretic methods, such as balanced truncation, Hankel norm approximation, and reduced-basis methods; data-driven methods, including Loewner matrix and pencil-based approaches, dynamic mode decomposition, and kernel-based methods;surrogate modeling for design and optimization, with special emphasis on control and data assimilation;model reduction methods in applications, such as control and network systems, computational electromagnetics, structural mechanics, and fluid dynamics; andmodel order reduction software packages and benchmarks.
This volume will be an ideal resource for graduate students and researchers in all areas of model reduction, as well as those working in applied mathematics and theoretical informatics.
John J. Benedetto has had a profound influence not only on the direction of harmonic analysis and its applications, but also on the entire community of people involved in the field. The chapters in this volume - compiled on the occasion of his 80th birthday - are written by leading researchers in the field and pay tribute to John's many significant and lasting achievements. Covering a wide range of topics in harmonic analysis and related areas, these chapters are organized into four main parts: harmonic analysis, wavelets and frames, sampling and signal processing, and compressed sensing and optimization. An introductory chapter also provides a brief overview of John's life and mathematical career. This volume will be an excellent reference for graduate students, researchers, and professionals in pure and applied mathematics, engineering, and physics.
This book provides a modern and comprehensive presentation of a wide variety of problems arising in nonlinear analysis, game theory, engineering, mathematical physics and contact mechanics. It includes recent achievements and puts them into the context of the existing literature.The volume is organized in four parts. Part I contains fundamental mathematical results concerning convex and locally Lipschits functions. Together with the Appendices, this foundational part establishes the self-contained character of the text. As the title suggests, in the following sections, both variational and topological methods are developed based on critical and fixed point results for nonsmooth functions. The authors employ these methods to handle the exemplary problems from game theory and engineering that are investigated in Part II, respectively Part III. Part IV is devoted to applications in contact mechanics.
The book will be of interest to PhD students and researchers in applied mathematics as well as specialists working in nonsmooth analysis and engineering.
This monograph presents new insights into the perturbation theory of dynamical systems based on the Gromov-Hausdorff distance. In the first part, the authors introduce the notion of Gromov-Hausdorff distance between compact metric spaces, along with the corresponding distance for continuous maps, flows, and group actions on these spaces. They also focus on the stability of certain dynamical objects like shifts, global attractors, and inertial manifolds. Applications to dissipative PDEs, such as the reaction-diffusion and Chafee-Infante equations, are explored in the second part. This text will be of interest to graduates students and researchers working in the areas of topological dynamics and PDEs.
This book gives a comprehensive introduction to Universal Algebraic Logic. The three main themes are (i) universal logic and the question of what logic is, (ii) duality theories between the world of logics and the world of algebra, and (iii) Tarskian algebraic logic proper including algebras of relations of various ranks, cylindric algebras, relation algebras, polyadic algebras and other kinds of algebras of logic. One of the strengths of our approach is that it is directly applicable to a wide range of logics including not only propositional logics but also e.g. classical first order logic and other quantifier logics. Following the Tarskian tradition, besides the connections between logic and algebra, related logical connections with geometry and eventually spacetime geometry leading up to relativity are also part of the perspective of the book. Besides Tarskian algebraizations of logics, category theoretical perspectives are also touched upon.
This book, apart from being a monograph containing state of the art results in algebraic logic, can be used as the basis for a number of different courses intended for both novices and more experienced students of logic, mathematics, or philosophy. For instance, the first two chapters can be used in their own right as a crash course in Universal Algebra.
This volume proposes an integral approach to studying the geophysics of Earth. It is motivated by a variety of phenomena from nature with deep and direct impacts in our lives. Such events may evolve across a large range of spatial and time scales and may be observed in the ocean, the atmosphere, the volcanic surface as well as underground.The physical laws dictating the evolution of such phenomena lead to the unifying theme of this manuscript, that is, the mathematical and computational modeling of flows and waves. Consequently, the underlying models are given in terms of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) whose solutions are approximated using numerical methods, thus providing simulations of the aforementioned phenomena, as well as the appropriate geophysical validation and interpretation.
This monograph explores the analysis and design of model-free optimal control systems based on reinforcement learning (RL) theory, presenting new methods that overcome recent challenges faced by RL. New developments in the design of sensor data efficient RL algorithms are demonstrated that not only reduce the requirement of sensors by means of output feedback, but also ensure optimality and stability guarantees. A variety of practical challenges are considered, including disturbance rejection, control constraints, and communication delays. Ideas from game theory are incorporated to solve output feedback disturbance rejection problems, and the concepts of low gain feedback control are employed to develop RL controllers that achieve global stability under control constraints.
Output Feedback Reinforcement Learning Control for Linear Systems will be a valuable reference for graduate students, control theorists working on optimal control systems, engineers, and applied mathematicians.