In Colombia, the beginning of a new century has brought with it a palpable feeling of optimism. Colombians and visitors sense that the country´s considerable potential can be realised, and education is rightly seen as crucial to this process. As opportunities expand, Colombians will need new and better skills to respond to new challenges and prospects.
The government is therefore determined to address key challenges confronting tertiary education in the country: expanding enrolment and improving equity, increasing quality and relevance, and making governance and finance more responsive. Colombia has more than a decade of progress under its belt, and the energy to reach ambitious policy goals. Getting there in practice will involve dialogue and consensus-seeking among all stakeholders, as well as new resources and new rules.
Although learning often takes place within formal settings and designated environments, a great deal of valuable learning also occurs either deliberately or informally in everyday life. Policy makers in OECD countries have become increasingly aware that non-formal and informal learning represents a rich source of human capital.
Policies which recognise this can play a significant role in a coherent lifelong learning framework, and present practices can be improved to make the knowledge and competencies people acquire outside of formal schooling more visible. The challenge for policy makers is to develop processes for recognising such learning, processes that will generate net benefits both to individuals and to society at large.
This report, based on an OECD review in 22 countries, explores the advantages of recognising non-formal and informal learning outcomes, takes stock of existing policies and practices, and recommends how to organise recognition of these learning systems.
What do we know about how people learn? How do young people´s motivations and emotions influence their learning? What does research show to be the benefits of group work, formative assessments, technology applications, or project-based learning and when are they most effective? How is learning affected by family background? These are among the questions addressed for the OECD by leading researchers from North America and Europe. This book brings together the lessons of research on both the nature of learning and different educational applications, and it summarises these as seven key concluding principles. Among the contributors are Brigid Barron, Monique Boekaerts, Erik de Corte, Linda Darling-Hammond, Kurt Fischer, Andrew Furco, Richard Mayer, Lauren Resnick, Barbara Schneider, Robert Slavin, James Spillane, Elsbeth Stern and Dylan Wiliam.
The Nature of Learning: Using Research to Inspire Practice is essential reading for all those interested in knowing what research has to say about how to optimise learning in classrooms, schools and other settings. It aims, first and foremost, to inform practice and educational reform. It will be of particular interest to teachers, education leaders, teacher educators, advisors and decision makers, as well as the research community
L´OCDE a procédé à des examens de la politique de formation des migrants en Autriche, au Danemark, en Irlande, en Norvège, aux Pays-Bas et en Suède, et s´est penchée sur l´expérience de nombreux pays en matière de formation de cette population. Cette publication offre des données comparatives sur l´accès, la participation, et les résultats scolaires des élèves issus de l´immigration par rapport aux autres élèves, et recense une série d´options pour l´action publique, à la lumière d´expériences réussies.
What does the OECD have to say about the state of education today? What are the main OECD messages on early childhood education, teacher policies and tertiary education? What about student performance, educational spending and equity in education? OECD work on these important education topics and others have been brought together in a single accessible source updating the first edition of Education Today which came out in March 2009.
Organised into eight chapters, this report examines early childhood education, schooling, transitions beyond initial education, higher education, adult learning, outcomes and returns, equity, and innovation. The chapters are structured around key findings and policy directions emerging from recent OECD educational analyses. Each entry highlights the main message in a concise and accessible way, with a brief explanation and reference to the original OECD source.
This report will prove to be an invaluable resource for all those interested in the broad international picture of education, as well as for those wanting to know more about OECD work in this important domain.
Consumers today are challenged by growing amounts of information and wider choices of products, requiring them to develop skills and knowledge for making good choices in complex markets. This publication examines the approaches that governments use to promote consumer education in OECD and some non-OECD countries, highlighting the policies and measures that have been particularly effective. It also analyses recent trends, the role of stakeholders, steps being taken to evaluate the effectiveness of current programmes and the principal challenges.
Growing flows of knowledge, people and financing cross national borders and feed both worldwide collaboration and competition. These effects of globalisation increasingly impact higher education. How then might the future higher education scene look at the global level? What are the challenges and opportunities brought by globalisation? How can countries and institutions best cope with and benefit from future changes?
Through both quantitative and qualitative analysis, this book provides a comprehensive and structured look at these essential questions. It explores the topic of cross-border higher education in terms of student, faculty and institutional mobility, providing a specific focus on academic research. Other issues addressed include higher education provision, financing, governance and quality assurance, with an emphasis on the use of market-like mechanisms. The book covers most OECD countries as well as many non-OECD countries and offers the reader specific reflections on China, India and European co-operation.
This book presents the theory behind the development of the 2009 PISA survey. The re-worked and expanded framework for reading literacy includes not only the assessment of reading and understanding printed texts, but also an innovative component to assess how well students read, navigate and understand electronic texts. Additionally, this publication provides the basis for measuring mathematical and scientific competencies. Finally, it presents the theory behind the questionnaires used to gather information from students, schools and parents on students´ home backgrounds, students´ approaches to learning and school learning environments.
OECD has conducted policy reviews of migrant education in Austria, Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden and has examined the migrant education experience in many countries. This book offers comparative data on access, participation and performance of immigrant students and their native peers and identifies a set of policy options based on solid evidence of what works.
Today´s global policy climate underlines the importance of better addressing non-economic dimensions of well-being and social progress such as health, social engagement, political interest and crime.
Education plays an important role in shaping indicators of progress. However, we understand little about the causal effects, the causal pathways, the role of contexts and the relative impacts that different educational interventions have on social outcomes.
This report addresses challenges in assessing the social outcomes of learning by providing a synthesis of the existing evidence, original data analyses and policy discussions. The report finds that education has the potential to promote health as well as civic and social engagement. Education may reduce inequalities by fostering cognitive, social and emotional skills and promoting healthy lifestyles, participatory practices and norms. These efforts are most likely to be successful when family and community environments are aligned with the efforts made in educational institutions. This calls for ensuring policy coherence across sectors and stages of education.
This report develops comparative knowledge for reforms in teacher and school management policies in the context of an OECD member country: Mexico. Mexico´s education outcomes can be improved by enhancing the effectiveness of its schools. The standards gap between the performance of students in Mexico and other OECD countries can only be reduced if schools become good at what they do. This report looks at key issues and challenges faced by the Mexican education system and provides policy recommendations on school management, leadership and teacher policies. These recommendations have been developed by considering the outcomes, quality and standards of education and schools in Mexico in terms of what is known internationally about effective schools, and by adapting this knowledge to the Mexican context.
The report has two audiences: It aims to support the Mexican government and key actors in the education system to develop long-term vision and policy in the areas of school management, school leadership, social participation, selection and recruitment of teachers, teacher education, professional development, and evaluation policies in Mexico. At the same time, it provides valuable knowledge in education policy development and implementation useful for other OECD member and partner countries that are in the process of reforming their education systems.
Chile has long considered education as a central priority and as key for its economic development. Over the past two decades the country has made great strides to increase the numbers of young people entering tertiary education. In 2008 Chile embarked on a bold initiative to develop its human capital with a scholarship abroad scheme - the Becas Chile Programme - which aims to train 30 000 outstanding students including teachers and technicians in institutions of their choice around the world.
This joint OECD and World Bank report gives an overview of human capital development in Chile; describes features of the Becas Chile Programme; analyses the strategic and operational issues; and recommends ways to maintain and fine-tune the scholarship abroad scheme. This report will be useful for both Chilean education professionals and their international counterparts.
In recent years, the Government of Egypt has driven major reforms for modernising the country. However, Egypt´s higher education system has remained largely unchanged and without fundamental reform of the sector the country will face difficulties in improving its competitiveness.
This independent review of Egypt´s higher education system focuses on areas in need of attention by policy makers and stakeholders, including system steering and institutional governance; student access to higher education; educational quality and effectiveness; research, development and innovation; and finance. It contains an analysis of the system and valuable recommendations which, taken together, represent a major programme of structural and cultural reform of Egyptian higher education over the decade to 2020.
This publication is the first report from the International Teaching and Learning Survey (TALIS). It provides quantitative, policy-relevant information on the teaching and learning environment in schools in 23 countries and has a focus on lower secondary education.
School effectiveness research consistently shows that the quality of the learning environment is the most important policy-malleable factor for positive student learning and student outcomes. In recognition of this, TALIS explores key policies and practices that shape the learning environment.
The important role that school leadership can play in creating effective schools is well documented. TALIS illustrates the roles and functions that school leaders adopt within schools - often facing quite different circumstances - and examines how these roles support teachers in their work. Retaining and developing effective teachers is a priority in all school systems and TALIS examines how teachers" work is recognised, appraised and rewarded and how well the professional development needs of teachers are being addressed.
Perhaps the most innovative aspect of TALIS is the insights it provides on the teaching beliefs that teachers bring to the classroom and the pedagogical practices that they adopt. TALIS cannot measure which practices or beliefs are most effective but it does show how these associate with some of the conditions that are pre-requisites for effective schooling.
Governments are seeking to channel research funds into universities and other institutions in ways that support high-quality research in strategically important areas and bolster effective knowledge diffusion. These issues of steering and funding have even more relevance in light of the current financial crisis and economic downturn which have seen severe fiscal pressures fall on many countries. This publication presents a collection of papers presented at an OECD workshop on performance-based funding of public research in tertiary education institutions. It takes stock of current thinking and practice around performance-based funding of public research in tertiary education institutions, as a tool to help governments meet their research goals. These funding models are essentially systems of ex-post evaluation of research outputs and outcomes from universities and other tertiary institutions, and are generally based on peer review, bibliometric or other quantitative indicators. Their results are used to inform government decisions about how much and which institutions to fund.
Using data from PISA 2006, this book analyzes to what extent investments in technology enhance educational outcomes. One of the most striking findings of this study is that the digital divide in education goes beyond the issue of access to technology. A new second form of digital divide has been identified: the one existing between those who have the right competencies to benefit from computer use, and those who do not. These competencies and skills are closely linked to the economic, cultural and social capital of the student.
This finding has important implications for policy and practice. Governments should make an effort to clearly convey the message that computer use matters for the education of young people and do their best to engage teachers and schools in raising the frequency of computer use to a level that becomes relevant. If schools and teachers are really committed to the development of 21st century competencies, such an increase will happen naturally. And only in these circumstances will clear correlations between technology use and educational performance emerge.
Higher-level skills are increasingly demanded by the knowledge-based economy. But with rising mobility and demographic change, it is no longer so simple to invest in a skilled workforce for the future. Actions are needed on a variety of fronts, including attracting and retaining talent, better integrating disadvantaged groups into the labour force, and upgrading the skills of low-paid workers. Much of the responsibility for these actions falls squarely on the shoulders of local policy makers.
Drawing from a wide array of case studies, this book analyses best-practice local strategies for increasing workforce skills. And it also takes a close look at the opportunities and challenges presented by international migration. The in-depth case studies in this report range from Shanghai´s "Highland of Talent Strategy" to new "career ladders" which help immigrants escape low-skilled, low-paid employment in New York. National and local-level recommendations on local skills development are provided, for both OECD and non-OECD countries.
Si l´apprentissage a souvent lieu dans un cadre formel et au sein d´un environnement spécialement dédié à cette activité, on apprend aussi une quantité de choses essentielles dans la vie de tous les jours, et ce de façon délibérée ou informelle. Les décideurs des pays de l´OCDE sont d´ailleurs de plus en plus conscients de la source abondante de capital humain que représente l´apprentissage non formel et informel.
Les mesures d´action publique reconnaissant cet état de faits peuvent jouer un rôle clé dans un cadre cohérent d´apprentissage tout au long de la vie, et les pratiques actuelles pourraient être améliorées afin d´attirer l´attention sur les connaissances et compétences que les individus acquièrent en dehors de l´enseignement formel. Le défi auquel font face les décideurs est celui d´un développement des processus visant à reconnaître un tel enseignement et à générer des bénéfices nets, à la fois pour les individus et pour la société dans son ensemble.
Ce rapport, qui repose sur des examens de 22 pays, explore les avantages de la reconnaissance des résultats de l´apprentissage non formel et informel, et dresse un état des lieux des politiques et pratiques existantes avant d´émettre des recommandations sur les façons d´organiser la reconnaissance de ces systèmes d´apprentissage.
The OECD´s new Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) has been designed to provide data and analyses on the conditions needed for effective teaching and learning in schools. As the first international survey with this focus, it seeks to fill important information gaps that have been identified at the national and international levels of education systems.
This TALIS Technical Report describes the development of the TALIS instruments and methods used in sampling, data collection, scaling and data analysis phases of the first round of the survey. It also explains the rigorous quality control programme that operated during the survey process, which included numerous partners and external experts from around the world.
The information in this report complements the first international report from TALIS, Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS (OECD, 2009) and the User Guide for the TALIS International Database (available for download from www.oecd.org/edu/talis/).
Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators (OECD, 2009) Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers (OECD, 2008) Improving School Leadership (OECD, 2008) PISA 2006: Science Competencies for Tomorrow´s World (OECD, 2007)
Leaders and academics can improve the quality of higher education teaching, and thereby the quality of their graduates, by reflecting on institution-wide practices. This book explores the interplay between actors within institutions, organisational structure, commitment of senior leadership, involvement of faculty and students, and evaluation instruments.
Based on an OECD review of 46 quality teaching initiatives in 20 countries, the report highlights the significant impact of the institutions´ environment, trends in the quality of academia, teaching methods and learning conditions. The sample represents 29 higher education institutions, from technological and vocational institutions to business and economic schools, from small undergraduate institutions to multidisciplinary postgraduate universities. The book illustrates the following factors with examples from around the world:
/> The aims of institutions when fostering quality teaching, their options and the guiding philosophy behind a quality approach;
Concrete ways to apply quality teaching initiatives, challenges to implementing them, and key actors in their dissemination;
Evaluation systems and the impacts of institutional support on teaching, research and quality culture;
How institution-wide approaches can be combined to enhance quality teaching in a sustainable way.The book also analyses the effects of quality teaching on institutional leaders, faculty members, quality units and students.
Alors que les pays s´efforcent de réformer leurs systèmes éducatifs et d´améliorer les résultats des élèves, la direction d´établissement est une priorité dans les programmes d´action gouvernementale en matière d´éducation. Cela étant, dans de nombreux pays, les hommes et les femmes qui dirigent les établissements sont surchargés de travail, sous-payés et approchent l´âge de la retraite. De plus, les candidats pour assurer la relève ne sont pas nombreux.
Quelles fonctions de direction contribuent le plus à améliorer les apprentissages des élèves ? Comment affecter et répartir au mieux les tâches de direction ? Comment doter les personnels concernés des compétences voulues pour leur permettre d´assurer une direction d´établissement efficace ? Comment rendre ces professions attrayantes à des candidats de qualité ?
Cet ouvrage s´appuie sur une étude consacrée par l´OCDE aux pratiques et politiques en matière de direction d´établissement scolaire dans le monde. Étayé par une perspective internationale intéressante, il recense quatre grands moyens d´action et diverses options pour aider les pouvoirs publics à améliorer la direction d´établissement aujourd´hui et renforcer durablement la direction demain.
This joint OECD and World Bank review gives a brief overview of post-secondary education in Chile and describes its development over the past twenty years. It presents an analysis of the system and identifies key directions for policy reform in light of the challenges encountered by officials, communities, enterprises, educators, parents and students. It concludes with a set of key recommendations concerning the structure of the system and its labour market relevance; access and equity, governance and management; research, development and innovation; internationalisation; and financing.