"« Il faut absolument lire ce brillant essai sur les effets secondaires du gouvernement. Il divulgue le problème de l'interventionnisme naïf, les dommages collatéraux de l'excès de bureaucratie, l'impunité croissante des dirigeants politiques (le problème d'Hammurabi) et autres difformités de l'État moderne.
Il montre comment un tel système est voué à imploser sous le poids de sa propre fragilité. C'est profond, bien illustré, plein d'esprit et très agréable à lire. Achetez-en deux exemplaires : un pour vous et un autre pour votre voisin politicien. » Nassim Nicholas Taleb, professeur d'épistémologie des probabilités et des sciences du risque à l'université de New York, auteur de Le Cygne Noir et de Antifragile.
""Hormegeddon"", tel est le terme inventé par William Bonner, entrepreneur et auteur de best-sellers du New York Times, pour décrire ce qu'il advient lorsque l'on abuse d'une bonne chose dans les sphères de la politique, de l'économie et des affaires. En bref, trop de bien conduit au désastre.
S'appuyant sur des exemples tirés de notre histoire politique moderne, de la campagne napoléonienne en Russie à la débâcle du système de protection de la santé américain, du déclenchement de la Seconde Guerre mondiale à la chute du Troisième Reich, de la Grande Dépression à la crise de la dette souveraine, William Bonner poursuit une ambition modeste : tenter de comprendre ce qui a mal tourné.
L'Histoire n'est pas un joli conte déclamé par ses vainqueurs. C'est un long récit de tout ce qui a déraillé : débâcles, catastrophes et désastres. Le fait que chaque désastre porte en lui un avertissement est ce qui rend son étude si intéressante. Si le constructeur d'un grand paquebot vous affirme que « Dieu lui-même ne pourrait pas couler ce navire », prenez le bateau suivant. Si la bourse se vend à vingt fois au-dessus de sa valeur...et que tous les experts vous invitent à « y entrer » parce que vous « ne pouvez pas perdre », il est temps d'en sortir !
De même, les désastres de la politique publique surviennent lorsque des gens bien intentionnés, armés d'un degré identique de confiance ""Titanique"", appliquent une logique de résolution de problèmes, certes rationnelle à petite échelle, mais totalement inappropriée à une planification à grande échelle.
Premièrement, vous observez une chute du taux de retour sur investissement (de temps comme de ressources) jusqu'à atteindre le zéro. Si vous persistez à descendre en-dessous de ce niveau, et vous obstinez toujours, vous obtenez un désastre.
Le problème est que vous ne pouvez pas compter sur les gens éclairés et bien intentionnés pour stopper la progression du désastre puisque ce sont précisément eux qui en sont la cause.
William Bonner a tiré de ces réflexions le concept de l'Hormegeddon : un phénomène qui surgit lorsqu'un élément produisant un effet favorable à petites doses est utilisé de manière tellement abusive qu'il conduit tout droit à la catastrophe. Cela s'applique à tous les domaines, que ce soit celui de la politique, de l'économie ou des affaires. William Bonner apporte un éclairage et une compréhension inédite sur ce phénomène méconnu en le replaçant dans des contextes précis de l'histoire politique moderne."
La réalité de l'adoption aujourd'hui en France Accouchement sous X, adoption de stars, désir d'enfant... l'adoption est au coeur de l'actualité. C'est aussi et surtout le projet de près de 30 000 Français. Dix mille démarches pour l'agrément sont ent
In Colombia, the beginning of a new century has brought with it a palpable feeling of optimism. Colombians and visitors sense that the country´s considerable potential can be realised, and education is rightly seen as crucial to this process. As opportunities expand, Colombians will need new and better skills to respond to new challenges and prospects.
The government is therefore determined to address key challenges confronting tertiary education in the country: expanding enrolment and improving equity, increasing quality and relevance, and making governance and finance more responsive. Colombia has more than a decade of progress under its belt, and the energy to reach ambitious policy goals. Getting there in practice will involve dialogue and consensus-seeking among all stakeholders, as well as new resources and new rules.
Although learning often takes place within formal settings and designated environments, a great deal of valuable learning also occurs either deliberately or informally in everyday life. Policy makers in OECD countries have become increasingly aware that non-formal and informal learning represents a rich source of human capital.
Policies which recognise this can play a significant role in a coherent lifelong learning framework, and present practices can be improved to make the knowledge and competencies people acquire outside of formal schooling more visible. The challenge for policy makers is to develop processes for recognising such learning, processes that will generate net benefits both to individuals and to society at large.
This report, based on an OECD review in 22 countries, explores the advantages of recognising non-formal and informal learning outcomes, takes stock of existing policies and practices, and recommends how to organise recognition of these learning systems.
What do we know about how people learn? How do young people´s motivations and emotions influence their learning? What does research show to be the benefits of group work, formative assessments, technology applications, or project-based learning and when are they most effective? How is learning affected by family background? These are among the questions addressed for the OECD by leading researchers from North America and Europe. This book brings together the lessons of research on both the nature of learning and different educational applications, and it summarises these as seven key concluding principles. Among the contributors are Brigid Barron, Monique Boekaerts, Erik de Corte, Linda Darling-Hammond, Kurt Fischer, Andrew Furco, Richard Mayer, Lauren Resnick, Barbara Schneider, Robert Slavin, James Spillane, Elsbeth Stern and Dylan Wiliam.
The Nature of Learning: Using Research to Inspire Practice is essential reading for all those interested in knowing what research has to say about how to optimise learning in classrooms, schools and other settings. It aims, first and foremost, to inform practice and educational reform. It will be of particular interest to teachers, education leaders, teacher educators, advisors and decision makers, as well as the research community
What does the OECD have to say about the state of education today? What are the main OECD messages on early childhood education, teacher policies and tertiary education? What about student performance, educational spending and equity in education? OECD work on these important education topics and others have been brought together in a single accessible source updating the first edition of Education Today which came out in March 2009.
Organised into eight chapters, this report examines early childhood education, schooling, transitions beyond initial education, higher education, adult learning, outcomes and returns, equity, and innovation. The chapters are structured around key findings and policy directions emerging from recent OECD educational analyses. Each entry highlights the main message in a concise and accessible way, with a brief explanation and reference to the original OECD source.
This report will prove to be an invaluable resource for all those interested in the broad international picture of education, as well as for those wanting to know more about OECD work in this important domain.
Consumers today are challenged by growing amounts of information and wider choices of products, requiring them to develop skills and knowledge for making good choices in complex markets. This publication examines the approaches that governments use to promote consumer education in OECD and some non-OECD countries, highlighting the policies and measures that have been particularly effective. It also analyses recent trends, the role of stakeholders, steps being taken to evaluate the effectiveness of current programmes and the principal challenges.
Growing flows of knowledge, people and financing cross national borders and feed both worldwide collaboration and competition. These effects of globalisation increasingly impact higher education. How then might the future higher education scene look at the global level? What are the challenges and opportunities brought by globalisation? How can countries and institutions best cope with and benefit from future changes?
Through both quantitative and qualitative analysis, this book provides a comprehensive and structured look at these essential questions. It explores the topic of cross-border higher education in terms of student, faculty and institutional mobility, providing a specific focus on academic research. Other issues addressed include higher education provision, financing, governance and quality assurance, with an emphasis on the use of market-like mechanisms. The book covers most OECD countries as well as many non-OECD countries and offers the reader specific reflections on China, India and European co-operation.
This book presents the theory behind the development of the 2009 PISA survey. The re-worked and expanded framework for reading literacy includes not only the assessment of reading and understanding printed texts, but also an innovative component to assess how well students read, navigate and understand electronic texts. Additionally, this publication provides the basis for measuring mathematical and scientific competencies. Finally, it presents the theory behind the questionnaires used to gather information from students, schools and parents on students´ home backgrounds, students´ approaches to learning and school learning environments.
Today´s global policy climate underlines the importance of better addressing non-economic dimensions of well-being and social progress such as health, social engagement, political interest and crime.
Education plays an important role in shaping indicators of progress. However, we understand little about the causal effects, the causal pathways, the role of contexts and the relative impacts that different educational interventions have on social outcomes.
This report addresses challenges in assessing the social outcomes of learning by providing a synthesis of the existing evidence, original data analyses and policy discussions. The report finds that education has the potential to promote health as well as civic and social engagement. Education may reduce inequalities by fostering cognitive, social and emotional skills and promoting healthy lifestyles, participatory practices and norms. These efforts are most likely to be successful when family and community environments are aligned with the efforts made in educational institutions. This calls for ensuring policy coherence across sectors and stages of education.
Governments are seeking to channel research funds into universities and other institutions in ways that support high-quality research in strategically important areas and bolster effective knowledge diffusion. These issues of steering and funding have even more relevance in light of the current financial crisis and economic downturn which have seen severe fiscal pressures fall on many countries. This publication presents a collection of papers presented at an OECD workshop on performance-based funding of public research in tertiary education institutions. It takes stock of current thinking and practice around performance-based funding of public research in tertiary education institutions, as a tool to help governments meet their research goals. These funding models are essentially systems of ex-post evaluation of research outputs and outcomes from universities and other tertiary institutions, and are generally based on peer review, bibliometric or other quantitative indicators. Their results are used to inform government decisions about how much and which institutions to fund.
Higher-level skills are increasingly demanded by the knowledge-based economy. But with rising mobility and demographic change, it is no longer so simple to invest in a skilled workforce for the future. Actions are needed on a variety of fronts, including attracting and retaining talent, better integrating disadvantaged groups into the labour force, and upgrading the skills of low-paid workers. Much of the responsibility for these actions falls squarely on the shoulders of local policy makers.
Drawing from a wide array of case studies, this book analyses best-practice local strategies for increasing workforce skills. And it also takes a close look at the opportunities and challenges presented by international migration. The in-depth case studies in this report range from Shanghai´s "Highland of Talent Strategy" to new "career ladders" which help immigrants escape low-skilled, low-paid employment in New York. National and local-level recommendations on local skills development are provided, for both OECD and non-OECD countries.
The OECD´s new Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) has been designed to provide data and analyses on the conditions needed for effective teaching and learning in schools. As the first international survey with this focus, it seeks to fill important information gaps that have been identified at the national and international levels of education systems.
This TALIS Technical Report describes the development of the TALIS instruments and methods used in sampling, data collection, scaling and data analysis phases of the first round of the survey. It also explains the rigorous quality control programme that operated during the survey process, which included numerous partners and external experts from around the world.
The information in this report complements the first international report from TALIS, Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS (OECD, 2009) and the User Guide for the TALIS International Database (available for download from www.oecd.org/edu/talis/).
Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators (OECD, 2009) Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers (OECD, 2008) Improving School Leadership (OECD, 2008) PISA 2006: Science Competencies for Tomorrow´s World (OECD, 2007)
Leaders and academics can improve the quality of higher education teaching, and thereby the quality of their graduates, by reflecting on institution-wide practices. This book explores the interplay between actors within institutions, organisational structure, commitment of senior leadership, involvement of faculty and students, and evaluation instruments.
Based on an OECD review of 46 quality teaching initiatives in 20 countries, the report highlights the significant impact of the institutions´ environment, trends in the quality of academia, teaching methods and learning conditions. The sample represents 29 higher education institutions, from technological and vocational institutions to business and economic schools, from small undergraduate institutions to multidisciplinary postgraduate universities. The book illustrates the following factors with examples from around the world:
/> The aims of institutions when fostering quality teaching, their options and the guiding philosophy behind a quality approach;
Concrete ways to apply quality teaching initiatives, challenges to implementing them, and key actors in their dissemination;
Evaluation systems and the impacts of institutional support on teaching, research and quality culture;
How institution-wide approaches can be combined to enhance quality teaching in a sustainable way.The book also analyses the effects of quality teaching on institutional leaders, faculty members, quality units and students.